Bihar Board Class 9th English Book Solutions Panorama English Reader Part 1

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BSEB Bihar Board Class 9 English Book Solutions Panorama English Reader Part 1

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Panorama English Book Class 9 Solutions Bihar Board

Panorama English Book Part 1 Class 9 Solutions Prose

Panorama English Book Part 1 Class 9 Solutions Poetry

Panorama English Book Class 9 Read, Think and Enjoy

  • Chapter 1 The Secret of Work
  • Chapter 2 Gandhiji’s Passion for Nursing
  • Chapter 3 With the Photographer

Panorama English Reader Part 1 Class 9 Solutions Bihar Board

Panorama English Reader Part 1 Class 9th Solutions Bihar Board

  • Chapter 1 I Am Going to Dance Again
  • Chapter 2 Scaling Great Heights
  • Chapter 3 Saint Kabir
  • Chapter 4 The Eyes Are Not Here
  • Chapter 5 Ismat Chughtai: A Lady with a Difference
  • Chapter 6 The Accidental Tourist
  • Chapter 7 Saint Ravidas
  • Chapter 8 Bharathipura

Bihar Board Class 9th English Writing

Bihar Board Class 9th English Grammar

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English Book Class 11th Bihar Board 50 Marks Solutions

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Bihar Board Class 11th English Book 50 Marks Solutions Poetry

Bihar Board Class 11th English Grammar Writing

Grammar

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Bihar Board Class 12th English Book Solutions Rainbow Part 2 100 & 50 Marks

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Rainbow Part 2 English Book Class 12 Solutions Poetry Section

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Bihar Board Class 12th English Book 50 Marks Solutions Poetry

Bihar Board Class 12th English Grammar Writing 100 & 50 Marks

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Bihar Board Class 11 English Book Solutions Story of English Chapter 5 Story of English Poetry

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Bihar Board Class 11 English Story of English Poetry Textual Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Complete the statements given below:

(a) Words in a poem are used for …………………. and ………………….
(b) In his poetic words, Chaucer did not use the ………………….
(c) The word Renaissance means ………………….
(d) The three great poets of the Elizabethan period are …………………. and ………………….
(e) The faiery Queene is a ………………….
(f) Shakespeare’s Sonnet’s deal with ………………….
Answer:
(a) Words in a poem are used for their sound and images.
(b) In his poetic words, chaucer did not use the Old English irregular lines and alliteration.
(c) The word Renaissance means rebirth and refers to revival of ancient Greek learning.
(d) The three great poets of the Elizabethan period are Christopher Marlowe, Edum Spencer and William Shakespeare.
(e) The Faiery Queene is aromantic epic based on chivalry.
(f) Shakespeare’s Sonnets deal with tragic failure in love and broken friend-ship.

Answer these questions very briefly :

Question 1.
What does Langland do in “The Vision of the Piers the Plowman?
Answer:
Long man writes in his “The vision of Piers the Plowman” a series of dream visions and he attacks the social ills and urges men to “Learn to Love”.

Question 2.
When was the influence of the Renaissance felt clearly in England?
Answer:
The influence of The Renaissance was felt clearly in England during the period from the accession of Elizabeth in 1558 to the death of James-I in 1625.

Question 3.
Who wrote “Austrophel and Stella”?
Answer:
Sir Philip Sidney who was a noble man as well a talent for writing; wrote the beautiful Sonnet; – “A strohel and Stella” in 1591.

Question 4.
Name the two epics in English.
Answer:
The name of two epics are — “Paradise Lost” and “Paradise Regained”, written by John Milton.

Question 5.
Name four leading Romantic poets of the nineteenth century.
Answer:
Four leading Romantic poets of the nineteenth century were –
(i) James Thomson
(ii) Robert Blair
(iii) William Collins
(iv) Robert Burns

Question 6.
Who has described poetry as the criticism of life ?
Answer:
Mathew Arnold has described poety as the criticism of life.

Question 7.
Name any three Pre-Raphaelites poets.
Answer:
The three Pre-Raphaelites poets are –
(i) Date Gabriel Rossetti
(ii) William Morris
(iii) A.C, Swinburne.

Question 8.
What aspects of modern civilization does T.S. Eliot present in his poems?
Answer:
T.S. Eliot in his poems such as the, ‘The Love Song’ of J. Alfred Prufrock’ and “The Wasteland” presents the hollowness and vulgarity of the modem civilization, which does not hae any awareness of spritual values.

Question 9.
What were the two concerns of the American poets writing in English?
Answer:
The two concerns of the American poets writing in English were –
(i) to define the self
(ii) to identify the nation

Question 10.
What were the major concerns of the early Indian poets in English ?
Answer:
The major concerns of the early Indian poets were –
(i) patriotism
(ii) the glorious past of India.

Question 11.
Name four Canadian poets writing in English.
Answer:
Four Canadian poets writing in English are –
(i) Jeannethe Armstrong
(ii) Claire Harris
(iii) Cyril Dabydeen
(iv) Arnold Itwaru.

Question 12.
Discuss John Milton as a poet [Sample Paper2009 (A)]
Answer:
We know that John Milton is a great puritan poet. He is physically challenged but mentally agile, he is second only to Shakespeare. He lost his eye-sight but developed his insight. His style is called grand style, “Paradise lost” and “ParadiseTegained” are his well known epics. His literary reputation reminds us of Surdas in Hindi Literature. His rich sensibility is every inch obvious in his poems. In this way, John Miltan is an unforgettable literary giant in English.

Question 13.
Discuss William Wordsworth as a poet [Sample Paper 2009]
Answer:
Wiliam Wordsworth wrote lyrics; ballads, odes, sonnets, verse- tales and reflective poems. May it be “Lucy-Poems” or “The Prelude”, his love of nature is always prominent. Nature, for him, is a spiritual presence.. It provides creative training to human sensibility.

The Romantic Revival in English poetry is often associated with the work of Wiliam Wordsworth. The movement refers to a renewed interest in Nature and simple life.

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Bihar Board Class 11 English Notice Writing

Bihar Board Class 11th English Book Solutions Notice Writing

Bihar Board Class 11 English Notice Writing

1. Your school is organising a tour to Mumbai and Goa during the winter vacation. Write a notice giving detailed information to the students. You are Madhav/Madhavi, School Pupil Leader, Ram Mohan Roy Seminary.

Feb, 20

Ram Mohan Roy Seminary
Notice Board
Tour to Mumbai and Goa

Our school is organising a tour to Mumbai and Goa during the coming winter vacation. It will be a 10-day tour in which only students of the Senior Secondary classes are allowed to Join. The expenses for traveling, boarding and lodging shall be around Rs. 3000/-(three thousand only) per head. Those who want to join this tour should give their names to the undersigned by the length of this month. A non-objection note by the parents is a must.

RAUSHAN
Pupil Leader

Bihar Board Class 11 English Notice Writing

2. You lost your wallet containing your valuable documents (passport, your certificates and a bunch of keys) while traveling by Puri Express from Patna to Puri. Write a notice for publishing in ‘The Times of India’ (Patna) under ‘Lost and Found’ column. You are Naresh of station Road, Patna.

Lost and Found

Lost my wallet of black colour containing some valuable documents, including my Board’s certificates of All India Senior Secondary Examination, passport and a bunch of keys on 25th June, 200 while traveling by Puri Express from Patna to Puri. The finder will be suitably rewarded.

Contact: Naresh,
Station Road,
Patna.

3. You are Pushkar, Darbhanga, As the Secretary of the Social Service league of your school, you have organized a cultural benefit show in aid of mentally handicapped children of your town Darbhanga. Write a notice in not more than 50 words for your school notice-board, giving necessary information about the program.

Social Service League
St. Secondary School, Darbhanga
Notice

You will be glad to know that the Social Service League of Sr. Secondary School is organizing a Cultural Benefit Show in aid of mentally handicapped
children of Darbhanga on 20th April 20 Entry is by tickets. The League will also distribute Donor Cards of Rs. 1000 and Rs. 500 to some distinguished industrialists and traders willing to patronise the benefit show. For tickets and Donor cards contact the undersigned on the working days from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. The proceeds of the show will be donated to the Secretary, Society For Mentally Handicapped Children, Darbhanga.

Program:
Magic Show: 6 p.m.
Folk Dances: 6.30 p.m.
Dance Drama (Chandalika of Tagore): 7 p.m.
Puppet Show: 7.45 p.m.
Venue-Football Ground, Sr. Secondary School, Darbhanga

Pushkar
Secretary
10th April 2020

Bihar Board Class 11 English Notice Writing

4. You are the Secretary of ABC Colony Welfare Association, Patna. Write a notice to be circulated to all the residents of the colony informing them that there will be no water supply in your colony on 24th and 25th of June, 20 due to maintenance work.

Welfare Association
ABC Colony, Patna

All the residents of ABC Colony, Patna are informed that there will be no water supply in the colony on 24th and 25th June 2009. Maintenance work has necessitated this step. The residents are advised to make necessary arrangements in advance.
Inconvenience is regretted.

S.N. Rao
Secretary 20th June, 20

5. You are the Principal, Senior Secondary School, Patna. Your school is introducing Commerce Section for XI and XII for the first time from July 2009. Draft a proper ‘Admission Notice’ for publication in a newspaper.

Admission Notice
Senior Secondary School, Patna

The school has decided to introduce Commerce Classes for XI and XII from July 15, 2020, There are only 100 seats for each class. Only students getting 60% or more marks in XI and XII need apply. The school will hold an Entrance Test on 5th July 2007 a 9 a.m. at the campus, Prospectus (Rs. 30/-) can be had from the school office on the working days.

Principal
Sr. Secondary School
Patna

Bihar Board Class 11 English Notice Writing

6. Your school has just completed 25 years of its meritorious service to society. The Students’ Council of your school has decided to celebrate its Silver Jubilee. As President of the Council, write a notice in not more than 50 words for the students of your school, informing them about the Councils decision and seeking their co-operation for the success of the proposed Silver Jubilee Celebrations.

17 March 2020

Notice
Silver Jubilee Celebrations

It gives me great pleasure to inform all the students that our school has just completed 25 years of its meritorious service to society. On this happy. The occasion, the Students; Council has decided to celebrate the school’s Silver Jubilee with great pomp and circumstance. The kind co-operation of all of you is sought to make the celebrations a success. Please contact the undersigned with your suggestions.

Abhay Singh
President
D.A.V. College, Siwan

7. The Student’s Council of your school has organised an excursion to Ajanta and Elora for the students of class XII during Winter Breaks. As President of the Council writes a notice in not more than 50 words telling the students about this excursion and inviting their names for joining it.

3 March 2020

Notice
Excursion to Ajanta and Ellora

8. Yor the students of class XII, the Students’ Council or the school has organised an excursion to the Ajanta and Elora caves near Aurangabad in Maharashtra, during the coming Winter Break. It will be two days’ excursion and will cost about Rs. 1000/- each. Those who are willing to join should give their names to the undersigned by the tenth of this month.

Amardeep
President
Student’s Council
Patna High School, Patna

8. You are Robit/Rashi. As the Secretary of the Cultural Club of your school, you have organized a Culural Evening as a thanks giving programme on the last day of your school. Write a notice for your school notice board, giving necessary information about this event in not more then 50 words.

1 March 2020

Notice
Cultural Club

The cultural club of our school is holding a thanks giving programme on the excellent performance of the club during the year. The programme will be held on Saturday the 7 October, the last day of the school. All are coordially invited to attend the function in the school hall. The function will begin with ‘Yajan’ at 8 a.m. in the morning.

Rohit
Secretary
Cultural Club

Bihar Board Class 11 English Notice Writing

9. You are Pushpak/Pooja. As Secretary of the Social Service League of your school, you have organized a cultural benefit show in aid of mentally handicapped children of your town, Vijayawada. Write a notice in not more than 50 words for your school notice-board, giving necessary information about the programme.

10 March 20
Notice
Social Service League . Patna Collegiate, Patna

The Social Service League of the school is holding a variety show in aid of, mentally handicapped children of our town. The show will be held of the 15th of April at 7 p.m. in the school hall. Many renowned artists of the state have been invited to take part in it. Tickets for the show can be had from the league office.

Pooja
Secretary
S.S. League

Bihar Board Class 11 English Notice Writing

10. You are Rahul/Rashmi. As President of the Literary Club of your school you have organized an inter-school debate competition on the occasion of the silver Jubilee Celebrations of your school. Write a notice in about 50 words, informing the students of your school about the competition.

26 Feb. 20.

Notice
Literary Club

On the occasion of the Silver Jubilee Celebration of our school, the Literary Club of the school is holding an inter-school debate competition on the 28th of the month. The competition will be held in the school hall and will begin at 11 a.m. About fifteen teams are expected to take part in the competition. All are invited to attend.

Rahul Sharma
President
Literary Club

Bihar Board Class 11 English Book Solutions Story of English Chapter 2 English Down The Ages

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Bihar Board Class 11 English English Down The Ages Textual Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write ‘T’ for true and ‘F’ for false statements:
(a) English was once humble East Midland dialects.
(b) Old English covers AD 449-Ad 1066.
(c) Middle English did not borrow from French and Latin.
(d) The present era is the period of New Englishes.
Answer:
(a) True
(b) True
(c) False
(d) True.

Answer these questions very briefly :

Question 1.
Which language is spoken by the maximum number of people ?
Answer:
Mandarin Chinese is spoken by the maximum number of people. An estimated 873,000,000 people holds this distinction.

Question 2.
Since when is the modern Language in use?
Answer:
Modem language is in use since A.D. 1500 on wards.

Question 3.
Which period characterised by inflection ?
Answer:
The old English period is characterised by inflections.

Question 4.
Why did the old English period fail to produce literature of much significance.
Answer:
The court patronage was lacking, as much literature produced during the age was not of much significance and the age came ot be known as the dark days.

Question 5.
When did the Great Vowel Shift take place?
Answer:
“The Great Vowel Shift” took place after the invention of printing press in 1476. At that time there was a considerable rise in literacy.

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Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Combination of Sentences

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Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Combination of Sentences

(Conversion of Sentences)

एक Sentence (वाक्य) या Clause को तथा दूसरे sentence या clause को दूसरे वाक्य में बदलने की क्रिया को conversion of sentence कहते हैं।

Sentence और Clause में अन्तर

Sentence : A sentence is a group of words put together according to the rules of Grammar. A sentence has a subject and a finite verb.

शब्दों के किसी ऐसे समूह को वाक्य कहा जाता है जो अर्थ को पूर्ण रूप से स्पष्ट करता हो। वाक्य में एक कर्ता और एक क्रिया अवश्य रहती है।

जैसे – He went home yesterday.

Clause : A Clause is part of a sentence. एस शब्द समूह को clause (उपवाक्य __ या पद्) कहा जाता है जो किसी पूर्ण वाक्य का अंश हो तथा जिसका अपना अलग subject और predicate हो । जैसे – He is the man who is honest.

इसमें वाक्य (Sentence) में He is the man. एक clause हुआ और who is honest भी एक clause हुआ। दोनों clause मिलने पर एक वाक्य बना।

Kinds of Sentence –

Sentence के मुख्यतः चार भाग होते हैं –
(1) Simple Sentence
(2) Compound Sentence
(3) Complex Sentence
(4) Mixed Sentence

(1) Simple Sentence: जिस वाक्य का केवल एक ही Clause हो उसे Simple Sentence कहा जाता है, जैसे –
1. The boy broke his leg.
2. She washed her clothes.

(2) Compound Sentence: जिस वाक्य में दो या दो से अंधिक अनाश्रित उपवाक्य (Clauses) हों, उसे Compound Sentence कहा जाता है, उदाहरण के रूप में –
1. Sita saw Ram and she became happy.
2. You must work hard or you will fail.
3. Many were called, but few were chosen.
Compound Sentence के प्रत्येक Clause को Co-ordinate clause कहा जाता है।

(3) Complex Sentence (मिश्रित वाक्य): जिस वाक्य में एक मुख्य-वाक्य (Principal Clause) हो तथा एक या एक से अधिक आश्रित वाक्य (Subordinate Clauses) हों,

उसे Complex Sentence कहा जाता है। Principal Clause को Mair Clause भी कहा जाता है।

Sub-ordinate Clause को Dependent Clause भी कहा जाता है।

जैसे-The company that supplied goods has failed. यह complex sentence है ।

(4) Mixed Sentence: Mixed Sentence में कम-से-कम दो Principal Clause रहते हैं और कम-से-कम एक Subordinate Clause. इन नियमों का सदा ध्यान रखें –

  1. Simple Sentence – One Principal Clause.
  2. Compound Sentence – At least two Principal Clause.
  3. Complex Sentence – Principal Clause + Subordinate Clauses.
  4. Mixec Sentence – Compound + Subordinate Clause.

तो, इससे यह स्पष्ट है कि Simple Sentence को एक Mixed Sentence बनाने के लिए __ आपको उन्हीं नियमों की सहायता लेनी पड़ेगी जो Compound और Complex Sentence के सम्बन्धों में बताये गये हैं। आप Co-ordinating और Subordinating Conjunctions के द्वारा यह काम आसानी से कर सकते हैं, जिसकी चर्चा पहले ही हो गयी है।

Exercise

Combine each set of Simple Sentence into a Compound Sentence :

  1. He is rich. He leads an unhappy life.
  2. The train is about to leave. We should get into the train.
  3. He works in a college. He manages his farm.
  4. My marriage will take place in April. If it does not, it will take place in October.
  5. You must help him in his studies. If you don’t, he will fail.
  6. Kapil Dev is a good bowler. Kapil Dev is a good batsman.
  7. I will not go to Srinagar. I will not go to Bangalore.
  8. The day dawned. The birds began to chirp.
  9. Keep quiet. I shall turn you out of the room.
  10. We do not borrow money. We do not lend money.

Answers:

  1. He is rich but he leads an unhappy life.
  2. The train is about to leave, therefore, we should get into it.
  3. He both works in a college and manages his farm.
    Or,
    He not only works in a college but also manages his farm.
  4. My marriage will take place either in April or in October.
  5. You must help him in his studies, or otherwise) he will fail.
  6. Kapil Dev is both a good bowler and a good batsman.
    Or,
    Kapil Dev is not only a good bowler but also a good batsman.
  7. I will go neither too Srinagar nor to Bangalore.
  8. The day dawned and the birds began to chirp.
  9. Keep quiet, (or, otherwise) I shall turn you out of the room.
  10. We neither borrow nor lend money.

Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Combination of Sentences

Simple Sentences into a Complex Senence

आप जानते हैं कि Complex Sentence में केवल एक ही Principal Clause होता है __ और उसमें कम-से-कम एक Subordinate Clause भी रहता है। इसलिए Simple Sentence को जोड़कर उन्हें एक Complex Sentence बनाते समय उसमें एक ही Principal Clause रखें और अन्य वाक्यों को Subordinate Clause का रूप दे दें।

Subordinate Clause तीन प्रकार के होते हैं –

  1. Noun Clause
  2. Adjective Clause
  3. Adverb Clause

ये तीनों प्रकार के Subordinate Clauses Relative Pronouns/Relative Adverbs/Subordinating Conjunctions से आरम्भ होते हैं जिनमें से मुख्य हैं –

that, who, which, what, because, since, so that, in order, that, as, as if, as soon as, though, before, after, if, when, where, till, until.

किस Subordinating Conjunction का प्रयोग कहाँ और कब होता है या (दूसरे शब्दों में) कब और कहाँ Noun Clause या Adjective Clause या AdverbClause का प्रयोग करके वाक्यों को Complex Sentence बनाया जाता है, यह वाक्यों के अर्थ पर ही निर्भर करता है। यह काम इन नियमों की सहायता से आसानी से कर ले सकते हैं –

How to Use Adverb Clause

Rule I. यदि वाक्यों से मालूम हो कि उनके बीच cause (कारण), condition (शर्त), – constrast (विरोध), compariso (तुलना), time (समय) या place (स्थान) का सम्बन्ध है, तो Adverb Clause के द्वारा वाक्यों को जोड़ना चाहिए इन्हें देखे –

1. He succeeded. He laboured hard.
Combined : He succeeded because he laboured hard.

2. He has been very unfortunate. He is always cheerful.
Combined : Though he has been very unfortunate, he is always cheerful.

3. He is a clever boy. No other boy in the class is more clever.
Combined : No other boy in the class is cleverer than he is.

4. You must sign your name. He will then agree to your terms.
Combined : He will agree to your terms, if you sign your name.

5. Men may sow much or little. They will reap accordingly.
Combined : Men will reap according as they sow much or little.

इन वाक्यों को Adverb Clauses के द्वारा जोड़कर Complex Sentence बनाये गये हैं। पहले दो वाक्यों में cause का सम्बन्ध है। इसलिए इन्हें because के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है। दूसरे दो वाक्यों के बीच contrast का सम्बन्ध है और तीसरे दो वाक्यों के बीच comparision का । अतः दूसरं दो वाक्यों को though के द्वारा और तीसरे दो वाक्यों को than के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है। चौथं दो वाक्यों से condition का बांध होता है। इसलिए इन्हें if के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है। . पाँचवें वाक्य सं manner बतलाया गया है। इसलिए इस according as के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है ।

Rule II. समय (time) का बोध करानेवाले वाक्यों को इनकी सहायता से जोड़ा जाता है-after, before, until.

इन वाक्यों को लें

1. He finished the work. Than he went out.
Answer:
He went out after he had finished the work

2. I wrote a letter. Then I read the newspaper.
Answer:
I read the newspaper after I had written a letter. Or, I had written a letter before I read the newspaper.

3. I finished the book. Then I went to bed.
Answer:
I went to bed after I had finished the book. Or, I had finished the book before I went to bed.

4. The bus stopped. Then I got off.
Answer:
I did not get off the bus until it stopped.

5. She finished the work. Then she went out.
Answer:
She did not go out until she finished the work.

इन नियमों का ध्यान रखें –

  1. पहले समाप्त होनेवाले कार्य के साथ before का प्रयोग होता है, पर बाद में समाप्त होनेवाले कार्य के साथ after आता है।
  2. Until से आरम्भ होनेवाले clause में not नहीं आता, पर Principal Clause में not का प्रयोग होता है।

Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Combination of Sentences

How to Use Adjective Clause

1. Adjective Clause के द्वारा भी Simple Sentences को जोड़कर एक Complex Sentence बना जाता है। यदि वाक्य में किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु की चर्चा हो जाए और अन्य वाक्यों में उसी के गुणों पर प्रकाश डाला जाय, तो Adjective Clause बनाने के लिए who, which, that, when या where का प्रयोग होता है; जैसे –

I suffered anxiety. The anxiety was extreme.
Combind : The anxiety that I suffered was extreme.

यहाँ पहले वाक्य में anxiety के विषय में बताया गया है और दूसरे में उसी पर और प्रकाश डाला गया है। इसलिए उन्हें Adjective Clause के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है। एक और उदाहरण लें –

A small house stood at the foot of the hill. We stayed there for the night.

Combined : We stayed for the night at a small house which stood at the foot of the hill.

यहाँ पहले वाक्य में house की चर्चा हुई है और दूसरे में उसी पर प्रकाश डाला गया है। (We stayed there for the night.)। इसलिए इन्हें भी Adjective Clause के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है।

इन वाक्यों को ध्यान से देखें –

1. He had received a good education. This raised him above many men.
Combined : The good education that he had received raised him above many men.

2. That is the house. He was born there.
Combined : That is the house where he was born.

3. This is the book. I wanted to buy it
This is the book that I wanted to buy.

4. Daniel came alive out of the den. In that den lion were kept.
Combined : Daniel came alive out of the den in which lions were kept.

Note : Who/Which/That के द्वारा जब Adjective Clause बनाया जाता है, तब इनका अर्थ हिन्दी में कोई भी ऐसे शब्द से होता है जो ‘ज’ से आरम्भ होता है; जैसे-‘जो’ ‘जिस’ आदि । विशेष जानकारी के लिए Analysis के अध्याय को देखें।

How to Use Noun Clause

Rule I. जब तक Simple Sentence के कथन (fact, opinion, belief, hope आदि) को दूसरे में स्वीकार (affirm) या अस्वीकार (deny) किया जाता है, तब ये that के द्वारा जोड़े जाते हैं। ऐसा that + clause होता है; Noun Clause और यह वाक्य हो जाता है Complex; जैसे –

(1) Better luck may be in store for us. We hope so.
Combined : We hope that better luck may be in store for us.

(2) He is honest. I know this.
Combined : I know that he is honest.

इन वाक्यों को ध्यान से देखें –

(1) He is honest. I do not doubt it.
Combined: I do not doubt that he is honest.

(2) He will come today. I am sure of it.
Combined: I am sure that he will come today.

(3) You have acted wrongly. I believe so.
Combined : I believe that you have acted wrongly.

(4) A lazy man injures no one but himself. This is not ture.
Combined : It is not true that a lazy man injures no one but himself.

(5) Someone has been making a great noise. I should like to know the person.

Combined : I should like to know who has been making a great noise.

Note :- ऐसे वाक्यों को जोड़ने पर it/this/that/so का लोप हो जाता है।

Rull II. Simple Sentence को इन शब्दों की सहायता से जोड़ा जाता है –

who, which, whom, whose, what, when, where, why, how, if, whether,

इन्हें जोड़ने पर who + clause/which +clause आदि Noun clasue होते हैं और पूरा वाक्य complex बन जाता है।

Assertive + Interrogative = Assertive + Assertive; जैसे –
1. I don’t know. Who is she? = I don’t know who she is.
2. I can’t say. Is he ill ? = I can’t say if/whether he is ill.

Imperative + Interrogative = Imperative + Assertive; जैसे –
1. Tell me, Where is he? = Tell me where he is.
2. Inform me. When will he come ? = Inform me when he will come.

Interorogative + Interrogative = Interrogative + Assertive;

1. Do you know? Why is she sad ?
= Do you know why she is sad ?

2. Can you tell me ? How have you come ?
= Can you tell me how you have come ?

Assertive + Exclamatory = Assertive + Assertive; जैसे –
1. How well he plays ! Nobody can believe.
= Nobody can believe how well he plays.

2. No one can imagine. What a great man he is!
= No one can imagine what a great man he is.

Assertive + Assertive = Assertive + Assertive; जैसे –

1. Somebody called me. I don’t know who.
= I don’t know who called me.

2. He will come. I can’t say when.
= I can’t say when he will come.

Rull III. जब एक Simple Sentence से प्रबल इच्छा का बोध होता है और दूसरे से इच्छापूर्ति का अभाव व्यक्त किया जाता है, तब इन्हें इस प्रकार जोड़ा जाता है –

Simple Sentence + [‘that’ understood] + Subject + Were + Other Words
Simple Sentence + [‘that’ understood) + Subject + Verb (Past Tense) + Other Words

Example

1. I wish to be a king. I am not a king.
Combined: I wish I were a king.

2. I wish to know him. I don’t know him.
Combined: I wish I knew him.

3. I wished to know him. I didn’t know him.
Combined : I wished I had known him.

Simple Sentence into Mixed Sentence

Mixed sentence में कम से कम दो Principle clause एवं एक या एक से अधिक sub-ordinate clauses होता है । जैसे –

We heard the sad news. We immediately started for the afficted house. There we found the mourners.

Combined : We heard the sad news and we immediately started for the afflicted house, where we found the mourners.- Mixed sentence.

Miscellaneous Exercised Solved

Question.
Combine the following sentences into a complex or Mixed Sentence :

1. He behaved prudently under the circumstances. Few men would have acted so prudently.
Combined : Few persons would have acted so prudently as he did under the circumstances.

2. His difficulties become greater and greater. He shows more and more energy
Combined : The greater his difficulties, the more energy he shows.

3. I will visit your house in June next. You have frequently asked me to do so. I will not disappoint you any longer.
Combined : I will visit your house in June next, as you have frequently asked me to do; and I will not disappoint you any longer.

4. The supply of pasture often runs short. The nomads of Tartary then shift their abode. They search for new pasture elsewhere.
Combined : When the supply of pasture runs short, the nomads of Tartary shift their abode in search of new pasture elsewhere.

5. We heard the sad news. We immediately started for the afficted house. There we found the moumers.
Combined : On hearning the sad news, we immediately started for the afficted house, where we found the mourners.

6. They spoke in defence of their absent friend. They could not have spoken better.
Combined : They could not have spoken better than they did in defence of their absent friend.

7. Combine the following sentences :- (Model Paper 2009 (A)]
(a) I am going to Kolkata. I am going by the evening train. The train leaves at 7:30 P.M.
Answer:
I am goin to Kolkata by the evening train leaving at 7:30 P.M.

8. Combine the following sentences : (Model Paper 2009 (A)]
(a) I went home. I talked to my parents.
(b) I missed the bus. I was late.
(c) You can take tea. You can take coffee.
Answer:
(a) I went home and talked to my parents.
(b) I missed the bus as I was late.
(c) You can take either tea or coffee.

9. Combine the following sentences into one : (Board Exam. 2009 (Arts))
He finished his work. He went to catch the train. He had to go to Mumbai.
Answer:
He finished his work and went to catch the train to go to Mumbai.

10. Identify the following sentences whether they are simple, compound or compler. [ Board Exam. 2009 ]
(a) You must work hard or you will fail.
(b) The company that supplied goods has failed.
(c) She washed her cloth.
Answer:
(a) Compound sentence
(b) Complex sentence
(c) Simple sentence.

11. Combin the following simple sentences into one complex sentence each : [ Model Paper 2009 (A) ]
(a) Where is the museum ? Can you tell me ?
(b) Dhoni will play to his potential. I know this.
(c) How to deal with the situation ? Can you tell me ?
Answer:
(a) Can you tell me where the museum is ?
(b) I know that Dhoni will play to his potential.
(c) Can you tell me how to deal with the situation ?

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Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Analysis

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Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Analysis

Analysis का अर्थ होता है वाक्य के अंगों या अंशों को अलग-अलग कर उनकी जाँच करना। सविधा की दृष्टि से इस कार्य को हम तीन भागों में बाँट सकते हैं –

(A) वाक्य के Clauses को अलग-अलग करना ।
(B) उन Clauses का नामकरण करना ।
(C) वाक्य का नामकरण करना।

[A] How to Find Out Clauses

सबसे पहले हमें यह देखना है कि clause किसे कहते हैं, क्योंकि इसके बिना clauses को अलग-अलग किया ही नहीं जा सकता । कुछ लोग दिये हुए वाक्य को अन्दाज से कई टुकड़ों में बाँट देते हैं। यह तरीका ठीक नहीं। यह तो सच है कि clause किसी sentence का एक भाग होता है, पर sentence का हर भाग clause नहीं भी हो सकता है।

Sentence के उस भाग (part) को clause कहते हैं जिसमें Subject और Finite Verb हों। यदि Subject और उसके Finite Verb का पता लग जाए, तो clauses आप-से-आप अलग हो जाएँगे, पर कुछ लोगों को इनका (Subject और Verb का) पता ही नहीं चलता ? इसलिए यहाँ इन दोनों पर विस्तारपूर्वक विचार करना आवश्यक है।

How to Find Out the Subject

आप जानते हैं कि केवल Noun या उसके equivalents (जो शब्द Noun का काम करें ही Subject हो सकते हैं, जैसे –

  1. Noun – This book is good.
  2. Pronoun – He is a good man.
  3. Infinitive – To walk is healthy.
  4. Gerund – Walking is good.
  5. Phrase – What to do is difficult to decide.
  6. Clause – What he says is quite right.

इस तालीका (chart) की मदद से आप subject को आसानी से पहचान सकते हैं।

[A] How to Find Out the Finite Verb

Finite Verb उस Verb को कहते हैं जिसका Number और Person Subject के अनुसार होता है। जैसे –
1. We go home
2. He goes home.

पहले वाक्य का Subject (We) Plural है इसलिए यहाँ Verb (go) plural है अतः ‘go’ Finite Verbहै इसी प्रकार दुसरे वाक्य में Verb (goes) singular है क्यों की subject (He) singular है इसलिए goes भी finite verb है ।

Note (a): जिस Verb का Number और Person Subject के अनुसार नहीं होता अधात् जो Subject की परवाह नहीं करके सदा स्वतन्त्र रूप में रहता है। उसी Absolute Verbहते हैं। ये Absolute Verbs तीन प्रकार के होते हैं –

1. Infinitive – I like to walk.
2. Gerund – I am fond of walking.
3. Participle – (i) Present Participle – Going there he saw a tiger.
(ii) Past Participle – Having gone there they saw a tiger.

तो, इस प्रकार Finite Verb और Absolute Verb में बहुत अन्तर है । Finite Verb सदा Subject के अनुसार होता है पर Absolute Verb कभी भी Subject के अनुसार नहीं होता, जैसे –
1. Having gone there he saw a tiger.
2. Having gone there they saw a tige

पहले वाक्य में Subject (he) Singular है और दूसरे में (they) Plural; पर Verb का रूप एक ही है। यही लक्षण Infinitive और Gerund का भी है।

इसलिए Absolute Verb को कभी भी Finite Verb नहीं समझना चाहिए, नहीं तो clauses ठीक-ठीक अलग हो ही नहीं सकते ।

Note (b) : कभी-कभी Infinitive (to + verb) का to चिह्न छिपा रहता है और केवल verb का प्रयोग होता है। इन वाक्यों को लें –

  1. He can speak.
  2. He should speak.
  3. he must speak.
  4. He had better speak.
  5. I made him speak.
  6. He did nothing but speak.

यहाँ speak Infinitive है । यह Finite Verb नहीं है। इसे Infinitive without to कहा जा सकता है। इसलिए ऐसे Infinitive को Finite Verb का एक भाग मान लेना चाहिए, इसे Finite Verb नहीं समझना चाहिए । इन सभी वाक्यों में केवल एक-एक Finite Verb है –

can speak, should speak, must speak, had better speak.

(ii) Elliptical (Contracted) Sentences.

Kinds of Sub-ordinate clauses

Subordinate Clauses तीन प्रकार के होते हैं –

  1. Noun Clause
  2. Adjective Clause.
  3. Adverb Clause.

1.Noun Clause : किसी Complex Sentence में जो पद एक संज्ञा (Noun) का कार्य कर रहा हो, उसे Noun Clause कहा जाता है।

निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में तिरछे छपे हुए शब्द-समूह Noun Clause बनाते हैं –

1. That John is a theif was not known to me.
2. He was told that he must not be late again.
3. Listen to what the teacher says.
4. The fact is that he knows nothing.

2. Adjective Clause : किसी Complex Sentence में जो पद किसी विशेषण (Adjective) का कार्य कर रहा हो, उसे Adjective Clause कहा जाता है।

निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में तिरछे छपे हुए शब्द-समूह Adjective Clause बनाते हैं –

1. The Company that supplied goods has failed.
2. The house where my brother lives has been sold.

3. Adverb Clause : किसी Complex Sentence में जो पद किसी क्रिया-विशेषण (Adverb) का कार्य कर रहा हो, उसे Adverb Clause कहा जाता है।

1. When the cat is away, the mice will play.
2. Where there is a will, there is a way.
3. You should act as the doctor advises you.
4. He talks as if he were mad.

Noun Clause

Noun Clauses निम्न शब्दों से आरम्भ होते हैं –

Who, which, what, when, where, whether, why,if, how, that क

Kinds of Noun Clauses

(i) Noun Clause,Object to verbor preposition

Noun Clause, एक Noun के समान, Transitive Verb या Preposition के Object (कर्म) के रूप में आता है। ऐसे वाक्यों की बनावट होती हैं.:

I think that he is poor

It depends on what your plan is.

ध्यान दें कि –

Rul I. Who/Which आदि से आरम्भ होनेवाला clause N.C. तब होता जब यह P.c. में ओय हुए Transitive Verb या Preposition का Object होता है।
Rule II. Who/Which/That आदि का अर्थ हिन्दी में ऐसा शब्द होता है, जो ‘क’ से आरम्भ होता है; जैसा-कि, कौन, क्या, कब, कहाँ ।

Example :
1. I don’t know/who has stolen my pen. who = कौन।
2. I don’t know/whether she is poor. whether = कि।
3. Tell me/how you have come. how = कैसे।
4. I find/that he is not honest. that = कि। .
5. I will judge you by/what you do. what = क्या।

(ii) Noun clause (Subject to a verb)

Noun Clause, एक Noun के समान, Subject का कार्य करता है। ऐसे वाक्यों की बनावट इस प्रकार की होती है –
Noun Clause – P.C.
What he says – is right
That he is honest – Is known to all.
Why he killed her – Is a mystery.

(iii) Noun Clause complement to a Verb

P.C.+ N. CI[As Complement]

Noun Clause, Noun 19, (complement) at foref I DÀ वाक्यों की बनावट होती है –

जैसे – My opinion is that he is a driver.

(i) My opinion is – Principal Clause
(ii) That he is a driver – Noun Clause Complement to a verb ‘is’.

(iv) Noun clause in apposition to Noun

Noun Clause, एक Noun के समान, apposition का कार्य करता है, अर्थात् Noun की व्याख्या करके उसे स्पष्ट करता है। ऐसे वाक्यों की बनावट होती है –
P.C. [With A Noun] – + N.C. (In Apposition)
I haven’t heard the news – that he has resigned.
I hold the view – that she is guilty.

(a) I have heard the news. – P.C.
(b) That he has resigned – Sub. Noun clause in apposition to the noun new’s.

(v) Noun Clause in apposition to ‘it’

P.C. + N. C. (In Apposition to it.)

ऐसे वाक्यों की बनावट इस प्रकार की होती है –

P.C. [It + is + noun/adj.] – + N.C. (In Apposition to it)
It is sure – that he will pass.
It is evident – that he a criminal.
(a) It is sure.- P.C.
(b) That he will pass, – Noun Clause in apposition to”It”.

Adjective Clauses

Adjective Clause इन शब्दों से आरम्भ होते हैं –

that, who, which, why, when, where, how

(i) Kinds of Adjective clause

(1)P.C. [With Noun] + Adjective Clause

Adjective Clause, एक Adjective के समान, किसी noun की विशेषता बताता है। ऐसे वाक्यों की बनावट इस प्रकार की होती है –
P.C. [With Noun] + Adjective Clause
I know the girl – who is dancing
I have read the book – that is lying here.
ध्यान दें कि –

Rule I. Who/Which/That if # 37114 Ettalin clause Adjective Clause तब होता है जब यह P.C. में आये हुए Noun की विशेषता बताता है।

Rule II. ऐसे Noun और Adjective Clause के बीच कॉमा नहीं रहता।

इन वाक्यों को लें –

1. I don’t know the man/who is standing there. who = जो
2. He desn’t know the place/where he was born. where = जहाँ
3. He doesn’t know the time/when he will reach. when = जब

(ii) Noun + Adjective Clause + P.C.

कुछ वाक्यों की बनावट ऐसी होती है –
Noun + Adjective Clause + P.C. [Verb + Other Words]
The reason why she was absent is not known.

The boy/who is here/is intelligent.

(a) The boy is intelligent – P.C.
(b) Who is here – Adj. Clause.

(iii) Noun + Adjective Cl. [Without Conj.] + P.C.

कुछ वाक्यों की बनावट इस प्रकार की होती है –

Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Analysis 1

(a) The boy is my brother.- P.C.
(b) You help – Adjective clause qualifying Noun ‘boy’
(c) The food/you eat/is not pure.
(d) The boy is my brother. – P.C.
(e) You eat – Adj. clause qualifying the noun-‘food’.

(iv) Noun + Adj. Cl. [Without Conj.] +Prep. + P.C.

कुछ वाक्यों की बनावट ऐसी होती है –
Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Analysis 2

(v) P.C. + Adj. Clause [With As/But]

कुछ वाक्यों की बनावट इस प्रकार की होती है –
Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Analysis 3

ध्यान दें कि-Rule 1. As/But से आरम्भ होनेवाला clause Adjective Clause तब होता है जब यह P.C. में प्रयुक्त Noun के बाद आता है और उस Noun की विशेषता बताता है ।

Adverb Clauses

Kinds of Adverb Clause

Sub-ordinate Adverb clause के निम्न प्रमुख भेद हैं –

(i) Adverb clause of Time : Principal Clause + Adverb Clause of Time कुछ Adverb clauses से समय (time) का भाव व्यक्त होता है और इनकी बनावट होती है –

Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Analysis 4

Adverb Clause of Time इन Subordinating conjunctions से आरम्भ होते हैं –

as, after, as soon as, as long as, as quickly as, before, when, whenever, while, since, till, than, until, the moment/ the minute.

Note (a):-No sooner से आरम्भ होनेवाला clause होता है Principal और than से आरम्भ होनेवाला होता है Adverb Clause : जैसे –

No sooner had the thief entered than I woke up.
(a) No sooner had the thief entered than I woke up.
(b) Than I woke up-Adv. Cl.

(ii) Adverb clause of place

P.C. + Adverb Clause of Place:

कुछ Adverb Clauses से स्थान (Place) का बोध होता है और उनकी बनावट होती है –

Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Analysis 5

कुछ और वाक्य लें –
1. I live where he lives.
2. He feels happy wherever he lives.
3. Where there is a will there is a way.

ध्यान दें कि Adverb Clause of Place इन Subordinating conjunctions से aid – where, wherever.

(iii) Adverb Clause of Condition

P.C. + Adverb Clause of Condition

कुछ Adverb Clauses से शर्त (condition) का बोध होता है और इनकी बनावट होती है –

P.C. + Adverb Clause (Showing Condition]
Or, Adverb Clause (Showing Condition) + P.C.

  1. Unless you work hard, you can’t get success.
  2. Write to me in case you need money.
  3. If you work hard, you will get success.
  4. He has to do the work, whether he likes it or not.
  5. Hand he gone to Delhi, he would have seen the Red Fort.
  6. Were I the Chief Minister, I would abolish examinations.
  7. You may stay here so long as you behave well.
  8. You may take this book provided you return it to me in a week.

ध्यान दें कि ऐसे Adverb Clauses इन Subordinating conjunctions से आरम्भ होते हैं –

if, unless, in case, supposing, provided.

(iv) P.C. + Adverb Clause of Comparison

कुछ Adverb Clauses से तुलना (comparison) का बोध होता है जैसे –

1. Mohan is as rich as Sohan.
2. Radha is richer than Mohan.
3. The more you have, the more you want.

ध्यान देखो ऐसे Adverb Clauses इन शब्दों से आरम्भ होते है –

as, than, the + comparative degree

(v) Adverb clause of concession ·

P.C. + Adverb Clause of Concession
कुछ Adverb Clauses से यद्यपि-तथापि (concession) का बोध होता है। इसलिए Adverb Clause में जो कुछ कहा जाता है उसके विपरीत (Contrast Principal Clause में कहा जाता है। ऐसे वाक्यों की बनावट इस प्रकार की होती है –

P.C. + Adverb Clause [Showing Concession]
Or, Adverb Clause (Showing Concession) + P.C.

  1. Though he is poor, he is happy.
  2. Although he started late, he caught the bus.
  3. Even if though she deceives me, I won’t harm her.
  4. However rich he may be, he is not happy.
  5. However hard he may work, he can’t get success.
  6. Wherever he may go, he can’t be happy.
  7. Considering/admitting that he is very old, he is in good health.

‘Adverbs of Concession इन शब्दों से आरम्भ होते हैं, क्योंकि इनका अर्थ होता है -“यद्यपि”

though, although, even if, even though, for all, no matter, it doesn’t matter, come what may, say what you will, however + adjective/adverb, adjectivel adverb + as, much + as, whatever (चाहे कुछ भी), wherever (चाहे कहीं भी), considering that, admitting that, not withstanding that.

(vi) Adverb clause of Cause

P.C. + Adverb Clause of Casue

कुछ Adverb Clauses से कारण (cause) का बोध होता है और उनकी बनावट होती है –
P.C. + Adverb Clause (Showing Cause)
Or
Adverb Clause (Showing Cause] + P.C.

  1. He missed the train because he started late.
  2. As he was ill, he was absent yesterday.
  3. Since he is poor, he should be helped.
  4. Now that he is dead, we shouldn’t criticise him.
  5. I am glad that he has passed.
  6. I am sorry that she has failed.
  7. I am glad that you agree with me now.
  8. He needn’t be punished in as much as he offers an apology.

ध्यान दो की ऐसे Adverb Clauses of Causes इन शब्दों से आरम्भ होते है –

as, because, since, now that, considering that, in that, in as much as, seeing that, noun + that, adjective + that.

(vii) Adverb clause of Purpose

कुछ Adverb Clauses से उद्देश्य (purpose) का बोध होता है और इनकी बनावट होते है –

  1. We work that/so that/in order that we may be happy.
  2. He died that/so that/in order that man might learn a lesson.
  3. Note down the point, lest you should forget it.

ध्यान दो की ऐसे Adverb Clauses of Causes इन शब्दों से आरम्भ होते है –
that, so that, in order that, lest.

(viii) Adverb clause of Result

P.C. + Adverb Clauses of Result/Consequence

कुछ Adverb Clauses से कार्य होने के परिणाम/फल (result/consequence) का बोध होता है और Principal Clauses के कारण (cause) का भाव व्यक्त होता है। ऐसे वाक्यों की बनावट होती है –

Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Analysis 6

कुछ और वाक्य लें –

  1. He is so great that he forgives even his enemies.
  2. The door is so high that the baby can’t reach it.
  3. She ran so fast that she won the race.

ध्यान दें कि ऐसे Adverb Clauses आरम्भ होते हैं that से और Principal Clause में _so या such आता है। इस प्रकार, वाक्य में so…..that/such….. that का प्रयोग होता है।

(ix) Adverb Clause of Manner

P.C. + Adverb Clause of Manner

कुछ Adverb Clauses से कार्य करने की रीति/ढंग (manner) का बोध होता है। ऐसे वाक्यों की बनावट होती है –

Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Analysis 7

[C] How to Name a Sentence

इस प्रकार, clause को पहचान लेने के बाद, अन्त में हमें यह देखना चाहिए कि अमुक वाक्य किस तरह का है। कुछ लोग वाक्य को पहले ही पहचानकर clauses को अलग करते हैं और तब नामकरण करते हैं। मेरी समझ में यह तरीका तो घोड़े के आगे गाड़ी रखने के समान है। हम वाक्य का नामकरण कर ही कैसे सकते, जब तक यह पता ही न चले कि अमुक वाक्य में कितने clauses है और वे किस प्रकार के हैं ? इसलिए sentence का नामकरण अन्त में होना चाहिए । पर, यह किया कैसे जाय? इसके लिए वह जानना आवश्यक है कि वाक्य कितने प्रकार के होते हैं।

बनावट की दृष्टि से Sentence चार प्रकार का होता है –
(i) Simple
(ii) Compound
(iii) Complex
(iv) Mixed.

(i) Simple Sentence =1 Principal Clause.
(ii) Compound Sentence = at least 2 Principal Clause.
(iii) Complex Sentence = Simple Sentence + Subordinate Clause.
(iv) Mixed Sentence = Compound Sentence + Subordinae Clause.

इस प्रकार हम देखते हैं कि Simple और Compound Sentences में Subordinate Clause नहीं रहता, पर इन दोनों में अन्तर यह है कि Simple में एक ही Principal Clause रहता है ओर Compound में एक से अधिक अर्थात् कम-से-कम दो) Principal Clauses.

Complex Sentence में सिर्फ एक ही Principal.Clause रहता है जैसे कि Simple में, पर Complex में कम-से-कम एक Subordinate Clause का रहना आवश्यक है।

Mixed Sentence में कम-से-कम दो Principal Clauses और कम-से-कम एक Subordinae Clause का रहना आवश्यक है।

Some Important Solved Questions

Question 1.
Pick out the principal clauses in the following sentences :

  1. When the cat is away, the mice will play.
  2. We love them, that love us.
  3. As far as I know, Ram Lal is not to blame.

Answer:

  1. The mice will play.
  2. We love them.
  3. Ram Lal is not to blame.

Question 2.
Pick out the principal clauses in the following sentences.

  1. The place where I reside is far off from here.
  2. He that is down needs fear no fall.
  3. The man whom I met at the railways station is my friend.

Answer:

  1. The place is far off from here.
  2. He needs fear no fall.
  3. The man is my friend.

Question 3.
Pick out the sub-ordinate clauses in the following sentences. [Sample Set 2009 (A)]

  1. As he entered the room, he saw a snake.
  2. I know who he is.
  3. Walk carefully lest you should fall.

Answer:

  1. As he entered the room – Sub-ordinate clause.
  2. Who he is sub – ordinate clause.
  3. Lest you should fall – Sub-ordinate clause.

Question 4.
Analyse the following sentences : [Sample Set 2009 (A)]

  1. If I were a bird, I would fly.
  2. I believe in the principle that fortune favours the brave.

Answer:

  1. (i) I would fly-Principal clause.
    (ii) If I were a bird — Subordinate, Adverb clause of condition.
  2. (i) I believe in the principal – Principal clause.
    (ii) That fortune favours the brave – Sub-ordinate Noun clause.

Question 5.
Analyse the following sentences: [Sample Set 2009 (A)]

  1. The principal liked your idea; so did I.
  2. When bell rang students came out of the class.

Answer:

  1. (i) The principal liked your idea – Principal clause.
    (ii) So did I – Co-ordinate clause to (i).
  2. (i) Students came out of the class – Principal clause.
    (ii) When the bell rang – Sub-ordinate Adverb clause.

Question 6.
Identify the following sentences whether they are compound or complex. [Sample Set 2009 (A)]

  1. The sun rose and the fog dispersed.
  2. He returned home when the evening came.
  3. I know Rani who is a clever girl.

Answer:

  1. Compound sentence
  2. Complex sentence
  3. Complex sentence.

Question 7.
Pick out the sub-ordinate clauses in the following sentences : (Board Exam. 2009 (Art)]

  1. He said that he was going to the school.
  2. I have read the book that is lying there.
  3. As he is ill, he is absent.

Answer:

  1. That he was going to the school- Sub-ordinate clause
  2. That is lying there – Sub-ordinate clause
  3. As he is ill-Sub-ordinate clause.

Question 8.
Pick out the Principal clauses in the following sentences : [Boare Exam. 2009 (Sc. & Com.)]

  1. That he will come today is certain.
  2. I know who he is.
  3. Walk carefully lest you should fall.

Answer:

  1. It is certain
  2. I know
  3. Walk carefully.

Question 9.
Identify sub-ordinate clause in the following sentences : (Sample Set 2010 (A)]

  1. That he will come today is certain
  2. He that is down needs fear no fall.
  3. As he came into the room all rose to their feet.

Answer:

  1. That he will come.
  2. That is down.
  3. As he came into the room.

Question 10.
Pick-out the sub-ordinate clauses and name them : [Sample Set 2010 (A)]

  1. He said not to go to school became he was ill.
  2. Ram said that he was present.
  3. The boy who is coming is my friend.

Answer:

  1. He was ill
  2. He was present.
  3. Who is coming.

Question 11.
pick out the sub-ordinate clauses in the following sentences : [Sample Set 2010 (A)]

  1. That he is honest is beyond any doubt.
  2. I do not know when he came from.
  3. The book that you took is mine.

Answer:

  1. He is honest.
  2. He came from.
  3. You took is mine.

Question 12.
pick out the subordinate clauses in the following sentences : [Sample Set 2010 (A)]

  1. I know the girl who is dancing.
  2. Sing while you play.
  3. I don’t follow what you say.

Answer:

  1. Who is dancing.
  2. You play.
  3. What you say.

We think the data given here clarify all your queries of Grammar Analysis and Culture and make you feel confident to attempt all questions in the examination. So, practice more & more from Bihar Board solutions for Class 12 English Grammar Analysis and Culture & score well. Need any information regarding this then ask us through comments & we’ll give the best possible answers very soon.

Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Tenses

Looking to improve English skills and gain more subject knowledge then the best resources that you can use here is Bihar Board Class 12 English Solutions Grammar Tenses. In the Bihar Class 12 English Grammar Tenses and Culture textbook solution pdf, subject experts covered all types of questions and answers related to the topics, quick notes, summary, solved & unsolved exercises, etc. If you are planning to prepare Chapter via textbook, then you’re suggested to go with this Bihar Board Class 12 English Chapter Textbook Solutions PDF for better understanding and preparation

Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Tenses

Tense

Tense- (E) Excla – क्रिया के रूप को Tense कहा जाता है । (The tense of a verb shows the time when an action takes place)

Kinds of Tense

Tense के तीन भेद होते हैं –
1. Present Tense (वर्तमान काल)
2. Past Tense (भूतकाल)
3. Future Tense (भविष्य काल)

Preseent Tense

जब क्रोई कार्य वर्तमान समय में होता है तो Present Tense कहते हैं, जैसे – Ram reads a book. He is writing a letter. Mohan has gone home. Sohan has been reading in this school for four years.

Past Tense

जब कोई कार्य बीते हुए समय में हुआ था, हो रहा था, हो चुका था, होता आ रहा था तो ऐसी क्रिया को Past Tense कहते हैं –

जैसे – He went home. He was going home. He had gone home. He had been teaching for ten years.

Future Tense

जब क्रिया से आनेवाले समय का बोध होता है, उसे Future Tense कहा जाता है जैसे-I shall go home.

1. Present Tense

Kinds of Present Tense
I. Present Simple/Indefinite
ऐसे वाक्यों की बनावट होती है –

Subject+full verb[Present Simple]

Present Indefinite Tense का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित परिस्थितियों में किया जाता है :

Rule I. ऐसे वाक्यों से चिरन्तन सत्य (eternal truth) या सिद्धांत (principle) का बोध होता है और इसलिए इनसे Past, Present, Future तीनों प्रकार के Time का भाव व्यक्त होता है; जैसे –

1. The sun rises in the east.
2. The sun sets in the west.

Rule II. ऐसे वाक्यों से स्थायी कार्य (permanent activity) या स्वभाव (nature) का बोध होता है इसलिए इनसे Past, Present, Future तीनों प्रकार के Time का भाव व्यक्त होता है; जैसे –

1. we hear with our ears.
2. We see with our eyes
3. The rose smells sweet.
4. He lives in India.

Rule III. ऐसे वाक्यों से आदत (habit) या कार्य के बार-बार होने (repetition) का बोध होता है और इसलिए इनसे Past, Present, Future तीनों प्रकार का Time व्यक्त होता है; जैसे –

1. I like fish very much.
2. He knows English.
3. He always comes on time.
4. She never comes on time.

Rule IV. ऐसे वाक्यों से भविष्य में होनेवाले कार्यक्रम/निर्णय (firm decision/programme) को बोध होता है और इसलिए इनसे Future Time का भाव व्यक्त होता है; जैसे –

1. He leaves for home tomorrow.
2. The plane takes off at 9 a.m.

इस प्रकार के वाक्यों में Future Time बतानेवाले Adverbs of Time का प्रयोग होता है, जैसे
tomorrow, next day, next week/month/year.

Rule v. ऐसे वाक्यों से ऐतिहासिक वर्तमान (historical present) का बोध होता है और इसलिए इनसे Past Time का भाव व्यक्त होता है; जैसे –

1. Now the Battle of Panaipat begins.
2. Now Akbar calls Birbal and asks.

Rule VI. ऐसे वाक्यों से समय (time) या शर्त (condition) का बोध होता है और Future Time का भाव व्यक्त होता है; जैसे –

1. You will pass if you work hard.
2. I will wait here until he comes back.
यहाँ If you work hard का अर्थ है-If you will work hard और Until he comes back का अर्थ है-Until he will come back.

2. Present Continuous Tense

ऐसे वाक्यों की बनावट होती है –

Subject+am/is/are+verb+ing

Present Continuous Tesne का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित परिस्थितियों में किया जाता है :

Rule I. ऐसे वाक्यों से तात्कालिक वर्तमान (immediate present-Now) का बोध होता है; जैसे –
1. The sun is rising now.
2. They are catching fish now.

Rule II. ऐसे वाक्यों से भविष्य में होनेवाले कार्यक्रम/योजना (plan/programme) का भी बोधं होता है और इसलिए इनसे Future Time व्यक्त होता है; जैसे –

1. He is leaving for home tomorrow.
2. She is taking her examination next week.

Rule III. ऐसे वाक्यों से कार्य करने के इरादे (intention) या संभावना (likelihood) का बोध होता है और इसलिए इनसे Future Time का भाव व्यक्त होता है; जैसे –

1. He is going to buy a car.- intention
2. The patient is going to die.- likelihood

3. Present Perfect Tense

Subject+has/have+past participle

Present Perfect Tense का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित परिस्थितियों में होता है।

Rule I. इससे यह बोध होता है कि कोई कार्य तुरन्त समाप्त हुआ है और इसलिए इसका सम्बन्ध वर्तमान समय (Present Time) से नहीं रहता है। जैसे –

1. I have finished the work.
2. He has returned from Delhi.

Rule II. इससे यह भी बोध होता है कि कार्य का सम्बन्ध वर्तमान समय (Present time) से जुड़ा हुआ है, क्योंकि इसका प्रभाव अभी भी जारी है; जैसे –

1. He has lived here since 1970.
2. I have known him for five years.

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Subject+has/have+been+verb-ing

इससे यह बोध होता है कि जो काम भूतकाल (past) में आरम्भ हुआ था वह वर्तमान समय (present time) में जारी है, जैसे –

1. It has been raining since Monday.
2. He has been working here since January.

Past Tense

1. Past Indefinite Tense (V2)

Past Indefinite Tense का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित स्थितियों में किया जाता है :

(a) भूतकाल में पूरी हुई किसी क्रिया के लिए :
1. We learnt English at school.
2. He killed a snake.
3. My father taught in this school.

(b) भूतकाल के सम्बन्ध में किसी आदत, अथवा प्रायः होने वाली क्रिया के लिए :
1. He came to me every evening.
2. He never told a lie.
3. I always spoke the truth.

2. Past Continuous Tense (was/were + V1-ing)

Past Progressive (Continuous) Tense का प्रयोग तब किया जाता है जब कोई क्रिया भूतकाल में किसी निश्चित समय पर अथवा किसी निश्चित अवधि के दौरान चल रही हो ।

1. He was writing a letter when I saw him.
2. I was reading a novel yesterday afternoon.

Past Progressive तथा Simple Past के अन्तर को अच्छी प्रकार से समझ लेना चाहिए।

Simple Past Tense – भूतकाल में पूरी हो चुकी क्रिया के लिए।
Past Progressive Tense – भूतकाल में जारी रही क्रिया के लिए ।

Past Progressive का प्रयोग उस स्थिति में किया जाता है जब हमारी मुख्य रूचि क्रिया के समाप्ति में न हो, अपितु क्रिया के जारी रहने में हो।

क्रिया के पूरे होने में हमारी रुचि कम होती है और क्रिया के जारी रहने की स्थिति पर अधिक बल होता है। यदि हमारी रुचि क्रिया के पूरा होने में हो तो simple Past का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

Completed activity (V2)

  1. He came into the room
  2. I saw her
  3. I dropped my watch
  4. When you telephoned ?
  5. It began to rain

Continuing activity was/ were V1-ing)

  1. while I was waiting.
  2. as I was passing yesterday.
  3. while I was binding it.
  4. We were playing.
  5. just as we were leaving the house.

3. Past Perfect Tense (had + V3)

Past Perfect Tense का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित स्थितियों में किया जाता है :

(a) ऐसी क्रिया के लिए जो भूतकाल में किसी निश्चित समय (moment) से पहले, या किसी निश्चित समय तक पूरी हो चुकी हो।

1. The patient had died before the doctor came.
2. I had funished my work by evening.

(b) किसी असन्तुष्ट इच्छा को प्रकट करने के लिए।

1. I wish my father had been here at this time.
2. I wish I had worked harder.

(c) Present Perfect अथवा Simple Past वाले किसी वाक्य को Direct कथन से Indirect कथन के बदलने के लिए भी इस Tense का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

1. He said, “The train arrived late.” (Simple Past)
He said that the train had arrived late. (Past Perfect)

2. He said, ” I have left my parents.” (Present Perfect)
He said that he had left his parents. (Past Perfect)

(d) यदि किसी वाक्य में भूतकाल में घटित दो घटनाओं का वर्णन हो, तो उनमें से जो घटना पहले घटी हो, उसके लिए Past Perfect Tense का प्रयोग किया जाता है, और जो घटना अपेक्षाकृत रूप से बाद में घटी हो, तो उसके लिए Past Indefinite Tense का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

Past Perfect Tense का प्रयोग तभी किया जाना चाहिए यदि भूतकाल में होने वाली कोई क्रिया किसी अन्य क्रिया की अपेक्षा पहले पूरी होने का भाव रखती हो।

4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense

(had + been+V1-ing)

Past Perfect Continuous Tense का प्रयोग तब किया जाता है यदि कोई क्रिया भूतकाल से आरम्भ होकर भूतकाल में ही किसी निश्चित समय पर चल रही हो; जैसे –

When I reached there at 2 p.m., he had been waiting for me since 1.30 p.m.

Future Tense

Future Tense के निम्नलिखित भेद हैं।

1. Future Simple

(i) First Person + shall + Infinitive (without to)
(ii) Second/Third Person + will + Infinitive [without to]

Rule I. ऐसे वाक्यों से केवल Future time का बोध होता है, अर्थात् यह बोध होता है कि कोई कार्य भविष्य में सामान्य रूप से होगा; जैसे –

1. I shall go to Bombay tomorrow.
2. He will start for Delhi tomorrow.

Rule II. कुछ वाक्यों की बनावट इस प्रकार की होती है –

(i) First Person + will + Infinitive [without to]
(ii) Second/Third Person + shall + Infinitive [without to]

ऐसे वाक्यों से भविष्यत्काल के अलावा इच्छा, संकल्प. चेतावनी (will/determination/ intention/threat) आदि भावों का बांध होता है। लिए इसे coloured future कहा जाता है। इस वाक्य को देखें –
He shall pay the fine. [threat]

Rule III. कुछ Interrogative Sentences इस प्रकार के होते हैं –

Shall + I + Infinitive [without to]

1. Shall I open the door ?
2. Shall I make tea for you ?

ऐसे वाक्यों से राय परामर्श/निवेदन (advise/suggestion/request) का भाव प्रकट होता है और Fresent Time का बोध होता है।

Rule IV. कभी-कभी Future Simple से आदत या सत्य का भाव प्रकट होता है और इससे Past, Present, Future तीनों प्रकार के Time का बोध होता है –

1. Boys will be boys.
2. Accidents will happen.

3. Future Imperfect [Progressive]
Subject+shall be/will be+verb+ing

Rule I – इससे यह बोध होता है कि कोई कार्य भविष्य में कुछ समय तक जारी रहेगा; जैसे –

1. I shall be reading a novel.
2. He will be staying here.

Rule – एसे वाक्यों से भविष्य में होनेवाले कार्यक्रम/योजना का भी बोध होता है; जैसेI shall be seeing her tomorrow.

3. Future Perfect

Subject+shall have/will have+past participle

Rule I. इससे यह बोध होता है कि कोई कार्य भविष्य में किसी निर्धारित समय तक समाप्त हो चुकेगा; जैसे –

1. He will have finished the work by next year.
2. She will have returned home by next month.

Rule II. Future Perfect से संभावना (likelihood) या अनुमान (inference) का भी बोध होता है। ऐसी संभावना या अनुमान का संबंध भूतकाल (Past) के कार्यों से रहता है, जैसे –

1. You will have heard this story. [शायद आपने इस कहानि को सूना होगा]
2. You will have seen this man. [शायद आपने इस व्यक्ति को देखा होगा]

इस प्रकार , will have + past participle agt 39ef staru may have + past participle और can have + past participle का होता है।

4. Future Perfect Continuous

Subject + shall/will have been + verb+ing

इससे यह बोध होता है कि कार्य भविष्य में बहुत समय तक जारी रहेगा –

1. I shall have been writing a novel.
2. He will have been reading a novel.

Important Questions Solved

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of verbs given in brackets.

Question 1.

  1. I ……… him last year. (See)
  2. The train ……… before we reached the station. (leave)
  3. He ……… to school by bus. (go)
  4. They ……… here for five years. (live)

Answer:

  1. saw
  2. had left
  3. goes
  4. have been living

Question 2.

  1. The sun ……… in the east. (rise)
  2. He ………. to school every day. (go)
  3. I wish I ……… a good man. (was)
  4. He ……… the poor yesterday. (feed)

Answer:

  1. rises
  2. went
  3. were
  4. fed

Question 3.

  1. Have you ……… him ? (See)
  2. He ……… the school before the bell rang. (reach)
  3. They were ……… Out an hour ago. (see)
  4. We ……… a film last night (see)

Answer:

  1. seen
  2. had reached
  3. seen
  4. saw

Question 4.

  1. We have not ……… him for a year. (see)
  2. Who ……… my book ? (steal)
  3. My brother ……… home a week ago. (go)
  4. The price of mangoes ……… gone up. (has).

Answer:

  1. seen
  2. stolen
  3. went
  4. has

Question 5.

  1. While we worked, they ……… (play)
  2. I ……… working there. (has)
  3. She ……… here since 1989. (live)
  4. The sun ……… when we went out. (shine)

Answer:

  1. played.
  2. have been
  3. has been living
  4. was shining

Question 6.

  1. He ……… for Patna next week. (leave)
  2. It ……… since last night. (rain)
  3. The price of things ……… up. (go)
  4. She did not ……… a letter. (write)

Answer:

  1. leaving
  2. has been raining
  3. has gone up
  4. write

Question 7.
Fill in the blanks with correct Tense of the verbs given in brackets.

  1. Columbus ……… America (discover)
  2. The cinema show ……… when I reached the hall. (start)
  3. After he met with an accident he ……… to a hospital. (take)
  4. The old lady ……… the Gita when the guests arrived. (read)

Answer:

  1. discovered
  2. had started
  3. was taken
  4. was reading

Question 8.
Put the verbs in any three of the following sentences into the correct tense form: [Model Paper 2009 (A)]

  1. He always (come) late.
  2. He (buys) a pen yesterday.
  3. He (live) here since 1990.
  4. They (be) happy at the turn of the events.
  5. Hari (come) tomorrow.

Answer:

  1. comes
  2. bought
  3. has been living
  4. became.
  5. will come

Question 9.
Fill up the blanks with correct tense form as given in the brackets : [Model Paper 2009 (A)]

  1. He ……… hot milk. (likes/is/liking)
  2. I ……… my work an hour ago. (have finished/finished)
  3. He is ……… today. (coming/comes)

Answer:

  1. He likes
  2. finished
  3. coming

Question 10.
Put the verbs in the following sentences into correct forms : [Model Paper 2009 (A)]

  1. Honesty (be) the best policy.
  2. The dog (bite) her on the ankle while she (catch) it.

Answer:

  1. is
  2. bit catching

Question 11.
Choose the correct tense forms of verbs in brackets and fill in the blanks : [Model Paper 2009 (A)]

  1. The Ganga ……… a holy river. (are/is)
  2. Sania Mirza ……… tennis. (plays/playing)
  3. He ……… children. (loves/is loving)

Answer:

  1. is
  2. plays
  3. loves

Question 12.
Put the verbs in the following sentences into correct tense forms : [Board Exam. 2009 (Arts)]

  1. It ……… since morning. (rain)
  2. The sun ……… (rise) in the east and ……… (set) in the west.

Answer:

  1. raining
  2. rises sets

Question 13.
Put the verbs in the following sentences into correct tense forms : (Board Exam. 2009 Sc. & Com.)

  1. Honesty (be) the best polity.
  2. He (leave) Patna a month ago.

Answer:

  1. is
  2. Patna

Question 14.
Choose the correct tense forms of the verbs given in brackets and fill in the blanks : [Model Paper 2009 (A)]

  1. He ……… (come) to see me yesterday.
  2. If he comes I ……… (go).
  3. Look ! They ……… (work) in the field.

Answer:

  1. came
  2. shall go
  3. are working.

Question 15.
Put the verbs in the following sentences into correct tense forms :

  1. Macbeth ……… Written by Shakespeare. (was/would)
  2. I wish I ……… a king. (be, will)
  3. The senant has been ……… by the master. (beat, beaten)

Answer:

  1. was
  2. be
  3. beaten

Question 16.
Fill in the blanks with correct form of tenses as given in the brackets :

  1. He has ……… every law (broke, broken).
  2. The report was ……… A guilty. (destorting, distorted)
  3. Mind ……… always suspicious. (is/are)

Answer:

  1. broken
  2. distorting
  3. is

Question 17.
Put the verbs in any three of the following sentences into correct tense forms:

  1. I(leve) Patna last year
  2. He already (buy) a new house
  3. He (return) the book tomorrow
  4. I (not see) any picture since January

Answer:

  1. had left
  2. bought
  3. will return
  4. have not seen

Question 18.
Fill in the blanks with correct tense formed an given in the brackets :

  1. My horse ……… very fast. (run)
  2. I ……… all my sums. (solve)
  3. I ……… to mumbai in next week. (go)

Answer:

  1. runs
  2. can solve
  3. shall go

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Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Idioms and Phrases

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Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Idioms and Phrases

(परीक्षाओं में प्रायः पूछे गए phrases का संकलन)

प्रयोग के अनुसार phrase कई प्रकार के होते हैं –

1. जो phrase noun का काम करते हैं, वे noun phrase कहलाते हैं। इनका प्रयोग subject, object या complement के समान होता है। जैसे –

He has seen many ups and down in life.
Birds of a feather flock together.

2. जो phrase adjective का काम करते हैं वे adjective phrase कहलाते हैं । वे noun या pronoun की विशेषता बताते हैं। जैसे –
I dislike your hole-and-corner policy (secret policy – गुप्त नीति)

3. जो phrase verb का काम करते हैं, वे verbal phrase कहलाते हैं । जैसे –

To be about-To be engaged in (व्यस्त होना, व्यस्त रहना)- What is he about ? (वह किस काम में व्यस्त है ?)
To be after-to desire (प्राप्ति की इच्छा करना)- What is he after ? What does he want to have ?

4. जो phrase adverb का काम करते हैं वे adverbial phrase कहलाते हैं। जैसे-
He left the city bag and baggage.
He threw himself into the work heart and soul.

Note – विद्यार्थी अक्सर भूल से ‘bags and baggage’ के पहले या ‘heart and soul’ के पहले ‘with’ का प्रयोग करते हैं। उन्हें यह ख्याल रखना चाहिए कि ‘bag and baggage’

का अर्थ ही होता है ‘with all belongings’, उसी प्रकार ‘heart and soul’ का अर्थ होता है ‘with all heart’.

5. जो phrase preposition का काम करते हैं वे prepositional phrase कहलाते हैं। Prepositional phrase के बाद सदा noun या pronoun का प्रयोग होता है। जैसे –
He is superior to me in point of age.

6. जो phrase conjunction का काम करते हैं वे conjunctional phrase कहलाते हैं।
जैसे – He fled away as soon as he saw the police.

7. जो phrase interjection का काम करते हैं ये interjectional phrase कहलाते हैं।
जैसे – Woe to me ! Well done !

Some Noun Phrase in Common Use

A lame excause – unsatisfactory (असन्तोषजनक बहना) – Headache is a lame excuse for absence.
A man of letters – a scholar (बिद्वान आदमी) – Radhakrishna was man of letter.
A man of spirit – courageous (उत्साही आदमी) – Shivaji was a man of spirit.
All in all (सर्वसर्वा)- The headmaster is all in all in the school.
Bed of roses – comfortable place (सुखद स्थान) – A thorn is not a bed of roses.
Hue and cry – noise (हल्ला – गुल्ला) – The villagers raised a hue and cry at the sight of the robbers.
Ins and outs – details (सभी बातें) – I know the ins and outs of the matter.
Jack of all trades – One who knows something of eveything (हरफन मोला) – A Jack of all trades is generally the master of none.
Pros and cons – Everything in favour of or against (पक्ष एवं विपक्ष की सभी बातें) – I thought over the pros and cons of the matter.
Ups and downs – rise and fall (उस्थान और पतन) – He has seen may ups and downs in his life.
Up and doing – busy, active (व्यस्त,फुर्तीला) – One should be always up and doing.

Some Adjective Phrases in Common Use

At sixes and sevens – in a disorderly manner (अवयव स्थित दशा में) – He keeps his books at sixes and sevens.
High and low – everywhere (हर जगह) – He searched for his cycle high and low.
In black and white – in writing (लिखित रूप) – Give your statement (en) in black and white.
In vogue – in force (प्रचलित) – Purda system is still vogue among the Muslims.
Null and void – Invalid (बेकार,नाजायज) – The old rules becomes mull and void when are replaced by new ones.
Right or wrong – whether the action is right or wrong (उचित हो या अनुचित) – I must do it, right or wrong.

Slow and steady (धीमा और अविचल व्यक्त) Slow and steady wins the race.
Through thick and thin – through difficult and easy obstacles (कठिनाईयों में) – My friend has helped me through thick and thin.

Some Adverbial Phrases in Common Use

Above all – before any other consideration (सर्वपरि) -Above all, be careful about your studies.
After all-in spite of every fact to the contrary (सब कुछ विपरीत होते हुए भी) – After all, he is a good man. (यद्यपि उसमें कुछ दोष है, फिर भी वह अच्छा आदमी है)
Again and again इन तीनों phrases का एक ही अर्थ है
Over and over again These three phrases mean ‘very often’ ‘बार – बार’
Time and again – Boys should pronounce difficult words time and again.
As a matter of fact – really (वात्सव में) – He lives in a fine style, but as a matter of fact, he is mean fellow.
As far as (जहाँ तक) – As far as I know, he is an honest man.
As it were – मानो (यह adverbial clause है) – A teacher is, as it were, the father of a child.
Asif – मानो – यह conjunctional phrase है । As if के बाद subject और verb से बना हुआ clause लिखना आवश्यक है ।
Sometimes she weeps and sometimes she laughts, as if she were mad.
At all-in the least (जरा भी)- Negative sentence को जोरदार बनाने के लिए बहुधा इसका प्रयोग होता है He does not read at all.
At once- immediately (शीग्र) – He came at once.
At present – (वर्तमान समय में) – At present he is living in Bihar.
At random – without any aim (बिना लक्ष्य के) – He fired at random.
By and by – after an interval; after a time (कुछ समय के बाद) – You will feel better by and by.
By far- decidedly (निशचित रूप से) – He is by far the best in the class.
By all means – in every possible wasy (हर तरीकेसे) – Do it by all means.
By no means in no way (किसी भी तरह से नहीं) – You can, by no means. take away my cycle.
By the by incidentally (किसी भी बात के सिलसिले में अचानक) – by the by our English teacher told us something about planets and stars.
Hither and thither – to and fro (इधर – उधर) – A mad man was moving hither and thither on the road.
Far and away beyound all comparison; decidedly (निर्व्वाद रूप से) – He is far and away the best speaker in the province
Far and wide/Far and near – इन दोनों phrases का एक ही अर्थ है – everywhere (सर्वत्र)
His fame spread far and wide.
He searched for his lost son far and near.
For good and all – for ever (सदा के लिए) – The Englishman left India for good and all.
Heart and soul – whole – heartedly (दिल और जान से) – He threw himself into the work heart and soul.
In fact – really (वास्तव में) – He weres a fine look, but in fact he is a rogue.
In the long run – eventually (अंततोगत्वा) – You will succeed in the long run.
In time, at proper time, not late (ठीक समय पर) – We should go to school in time.
In vain – with no tangible result (निष्फल) – He laboured hard to pass the examination but in vain.
Little by little gradually (धीरे – धीरे) – He is progressing little by little.
Now and then- occasionally (बहुध) – He comes to my house now & then.
Of course, naturally (जैसा स्वाभाविक है) – He failed at the examination and, of course, he was sorry for it.
Off and on – irregularly (अनियमित रूप से कभी – कभी) – He read English off and on.
On and on- continuously, regularly (नियमित रूप से लगातार) – He worked on and on for many years.
Once for all (सदा के लिए) – I tell you once for all that you should never smoke again.
On the contrare rather (प्रत्युक इसके विपरीत) – I do not admire him; on the contrary I hate him. इसका प्रयोग Conjunction की तरह भी होता है।
On the whole – (taking everything into consideration (वस्तुत सब प्रकार से) – on the whole, he appears to be a good man (considering all his merits and demerits he appears to be a good man)
One and all – apeveryone (सभी) – One and all did not accept this leadership.
Over and above – in addition to; besides (अतिरिक्त) – He lost his book and was beaten over and above for his carelessness. इसका प्रयोग Prepositional Phrase की तरह भी होता है Over and above what he lost, he was beaten for his carelessness.
Over and over again – same as ‘again and again’.
So far as (जहाँ तक) – So far as I know, he is poor,
Sooner or later-eventually (कालक्रम से) – A thief will be caught sooner or later.
The other day – not long ago – इसका प्रयोग भूतकाल में होता है इसका अर्थ है ‘कुछ दिन पहले, हाल ही में किसी दिन अभी – अभी उसी दिन’ – He came to my house the other day.
Time and again-Same as ‘again and again’.
Through and through – fully (पूर्णतया) – He read the book through and through. He was drenched through and through.
To and frombackward and forward (आगे पीछे) – He was moving to & fro.

Some Adverbial Phrases (Idioms with Adverbs)

As usual (पहले जैसा) – The train was late today as usual.
At any rate (किसी भी हालत में) – It is bad; at Any rate, not good.
At times (कभी – कभी)- Even a sinner feels ashamed of himself at time.
At most (अधिक – से – अधिक) – I can give you at most ten rupees.
Far and near (Far and wide) (सर्वत्र) – This news has spread far and near (far and wide).
For long (बहुत दिनों तक) – A good man is remembered for long.
Once again or, over again or, once more (एक बार और) – Can you do it once again (over again, once more).

Prepositional Phrases (Idioms with Preposition)

By way of (रूप में) – I told you by way of advice.
In keeping with (मेल से) Your action should be in keeping with your speech.
In accord with (अनुसार,समान) – Your news is not in accord (accordance) with us.
In harmony with (मेल से, सौहार्दपूर्ण)- Your attitude is not in harmony with us.
In agreement with (अनुकूल, एकमत)- What can I do if he does not act in agreement with me.
In search of (खोज में)- I am in search of knowledge.
In proportion to (अनुपात में) – He is not paid in proportion to his labour.
On the eve of (कुछ पहले)We had a dinner on the eve of the Pujas.
On the ground of (आधार पर) – You are excused on the gound of ignorance
Owing to (कारण से), He is absent owing to his illness.
With an eye to (ध्यान में रखकर), Let us work with an eye to future.

Some Verbal Phrases in Common Use

To be after – tobe in pursuit of (किसी वस्तु की प्राप्ति के फेर में रखना) – What is he after ? (वह किसी चीज़ की प्राप्ति केलिए परेशान है ?)
To be at home in to be expert in (निपुण होना) – He is quite at home in English.
To be at home to be at ease (घर की तरह आराम से रहना – I am quite at home in his house.
To be at large – to be free from restraint (बंदनामुख्त होना) – His dog is chained in the daytime, but it is at large in the night.
To be in fault – to be guilty (दोषी होना) The accused was in fault.
To be at fault – to be puzzled (घबड़ा जाना) – My memory was in fault, so I could not recite the poem correctly.
To bring out – to publish (प्रकाशित करना) – The Anjana Prakashan of Patna will bring out its new edition next year.
To cut short (काम होना) – His life was cut short due to cholera.
To come across – happen to meet or find by chance (अचानक मुलाक़ात होना, अचानक पा जाना) – I came across an old friend of mine in the park.
To fall short of – to become less (काम होना) – His income falls short of his expenditure. (उसकी आमदनी खर्च से काम है)
To fall flat on – to have to effect (प्रभाव नहीं डालना) – His speech fell flat on the audience.
To get rid of –to be free from (छुटकारा पाना) – A man can get rid of temptations (प्रलोभन) by practising virtue (सद्गुण).
To get by heart – to memorize (याद करना) – You must get you lesson by heart.
To hold good to be applicable to (लागू होना) – This rule holds good in this case.
To look down upon – to look with contempt (घृणा की दृष्टी से देखना) – We should not look down upon the poor.
To make room – to accommodate (स्थान देना) – The gentleman moved a little and made room for me in the compartment.
To pur up with (सहना) – I cannot put up with such an insult.
To run short-to be exhausted (घाट जाना) – Food ran short in my house.
To take care of -to be careful (सावधान होना) – Take care of your money, otherwise you will repent.
To take hold of – to catch (पकड़ना) -The police took hold of the robbers in the den.
To take place to happen (होना) – His marriage will take place tommorrow.
Attend to (ध्यान देना)-You must attend to your work.
Blow out (फुंक कर बुजाना) – Blow out the candle.
Break away (भाग जाना) – I saw the thief but he broke away.
Breaks in (ट्रैनिंग देना) – He breaks in his horse.
Break into (अचानक) – A thief broke into my house.
Bring forth (जन्म देना)-Trees bring forth new leaves in spring.
Bring up (पालन पोषण होना या किया जाना) – I was brought up by my mother.
Call in (बुला भेजना) – Call in a doctor at once.
Call up (याद करना) – I cannot call up that old incident.
Carry on (आगे बढ़ना) – It is useless to carry on this business.
Deals in (व्यापार करना) – The merchant deals in rice.
Dwells in (रहना निवास करना) – He dwells in a dirty house.
To fall in (एक ख़तार में खड़ा होना) Boys were asked to.
Fall out (झगड़ा करना)Sometimes even fast friends fall out.
Fall flat (असर ना होना) – All my appeals fell flat on the mob.
Get over (विजय पाना) – I got over the difficulty at last.
Give up (पूर्ण रूप से छोड़ना) – One must give up bad habits.
Give way (गिर जाना) – The house gave way during rain.
Go through (सभी संकटों का सामान करना) – I am prepared to go through fire and water to help my friend.
Bihar Board Class 12 English Grammar Idioms and Phrases
Hanker after (for) (तीव्र इच्छा , आकांक्ष होना) – He always hankers after (for) money.
Held in (रोख कर रखा जाना) – The spirited horse was held in.
Keep off (अलग करना) – Keep off bad company.
Look into (जांच करना) – He is looking into the case.
Look after (देखभाल करना) – A mother looks after her children.
Make up (i) (पूरा करना) – The enemy was asked to make up.
(ii) (तय करना) – You should make up your mind soon.
Put off (i) (स्थागित करना) – Don’t put off till tomorrow what you can do today.
(b) The meeting was put off.
(ii) (छोड़ देना) – You should put off these dirty clothes.
Run after (पीछा करना) – Do not run after money.
Run short (ख़त्म हो जाना) – My money has run short.
Set free (मुख्त करना छोड़ देना)-All Ithe prisoners were set free.
Take after (सदृश होना) – Children take after their parents.
Take up (आरम्भ करना) – You should take up the work now.
Turn out (i) (एकचित्र होना) – The whole village turned out to welcome her.
(ii) (बन्ध करना) – Please turned out the tap.
(iii) (निकाल दिया जाना) – He was turned out of the examination hall.

Some Prepositional Phrases in Common Use

As to – regarding (विषय में)As to whether he will consent, it is too early to say.
At home in-expert (निपुण) in – I am at home in mathematics.
At the bottom of (के मूल में) – The eldest son was at the bottom of all the quarrels in the house.
According to (के अनुसार) – The police acted according to the orders of the officer.
Because of owing to (के कारण) – He did not go to school because of his illness.
By dint of – with the help of (आधार पर) – He got success over the river by means of a boat.
By force of की सहायत से) – He regained his health by force of regular exercise.
By means of – by the use of (के प्रयोग द्वारा) – He crossed the river by means of a boat.
By virtue of – on the ground of (आधार पर) – He deserves free-studentship by virtue of his merit.
By the side of – beside (के बगल में) The child was sitting the side of his mother.
For the sake of – to earn (उपार्जन करना) – He labours hard for the sake of money.
For want of – due to the shortage to (की कमी के कारण) – Crops failed for want of rain.
In accordance with according to (के अनुरूप) – Your actions are not in accordance with your words.
In case of – in the state (event) of (की हालत में) – Do not lose heart in case of failure.
In common with along with (साथ – साथ) -The monitor was fined in common with other boys.
In connection with (के सम्बन्ध में) – I went to my friend’s house in connection with my brother’s marriage.
In course of – while progressing (के सिल सिले में) – The leader said many things in course of his speech.
In defence of – in projection of (के बचाव में) – The pleader argues in defence of his client.
In defiance of – in violation of (के विरुद्ध) – The sepoys rebelled in defiance of law.
In face of – against, in the presence of (बावजूद सामना करते हुए) – He kept on making progress in face of difficulties.
In favour of – on the side of (के पक्ष में) – Our leaders are in favour of compulsory primary education.
In front of-opposite (के सामने) – There is a tank in front of my house.
In honour of – as a mark of respect (के विचार से) – The school was closed for two days in honour of the Governmer’s visit to the schvol.
In honour of as a substitute for (के बदले में) – He gave me a watch in liew of the money lent out to him.
In point of – in resepect of (के विचार से) He is superior to me in point of age or in respect of age.
In quest of (की खोज में) – He is in quest of a good job.
In spite of – notwithstanding (बावजूद होते हुए भी)-In spite of hard labour he failed at the examination.
In stead of – in place of (के विजय) – He wasted his time instead of working hard.
In view of – considering (के विचार से) – He deserves help in view of his poverty.
In sight of (दृष्टिगोचर होना) – He came in sight of ariver, i.e., he saw a river.
In the event of -in case of (की हालत में) – Try again in the event of failure.
In the guise of – In false dress (के बनावटी वेश में) -The robbers entered the house in the guise of policemen.
In the teeth of – again (विषम स्थति के बावजूद) – He moved the resolution in the teeth of opposition.
In order to – to (के लिए) – Labour hard in order to get through the examination.
In regard to – in connection with (के सम्बन्ध में)-I have nothing to say in regard to this matter
On account – due to (के कारण) – He did not go to schol on account of his illness.
With a view to – with the aim of (के उद्देश्य से) – He joined college witha view to getting higher education.
(स्मरण रहे कि with a view to के बाद verb में ing का व्यवहार होता है)
With an eye to keeping in view (को ध्यान में रहते हुए) – He lays by something with an eye to the future.
With reference इन तीनों phrase का अर्थ है “In connection with’
With regard to (के सम्बन्ध में) Have you got any thing to say with
With respect to reference to his conduct, or with regard to his conduct ?

Some Conjunctional Phrases in Common Use

As soon as (ज्यों ही) – The bell rang as soon as I reached the school.
As well as -and (और) – He as well as Hari is in fault.
In as much as – because (क्योंकि)-He must be punished inasmuch as he has neglected his task. [Inasmuch को तोड़-तोड़कर in much नहीं लिखें]
In case-if (यदि)-Try again, in case you fail.
In order that – so that (जिससे की) – it denos purpose-He work in order that he may pass the examination.
No less than (कम नहीं) – He is no less quality than you are.
No sooner than (ज्यों ही) – No sooner had I reached the school than the bell rang.
So long as या as long as (जब तक) – It never denotes ‘time before’ -You will get money as long as you work. So long as the world lasts, the sun will shine over us.

Miscellaneous Idioms and Phases in Common Use

As usual -as in the ordinary practice (सदा की भांति) – I went there in the morning, as usual.
At best (अधिक-से-अधिक) – At best he is only a moderate speaker.
All in all – vested with all power (सरसावा सभी अधिकारों से युक्त) – The headmaster is all in all in his school.
At the eleventh hour – at the last moment (अन्तिंम क्षण में)-A doctor was called in at the eleventh hour when the patient was dying.
All the same – (i) of equal importance (एक ही बात) – It is all the same whether it is done by you us by me.
In all – total (सब मिलाकर) – There are, in all, 620 students in my school.
Let loose -to free (बंधनमुक्त करना)- He lets his dog loose at night.
Make good to compensate (क्षतिपूर्ति करना) – You will have to make good the loss I have incurred owing to your negligence.
Nick of time at the opportune moment (ठीक समय पर) -A doctor came in the nick of time.
Out of temper -angry (क्रुद्ध) – This man seems to be out of temper.
Of no avail – usless (निरर्थक)-Your excuses are of no avail.
Over head and ears (पूर्णतया) – He is over head and ears in debt.
On no account – in no case (किसी भी हालत में नहीं) – School fees, once deposited, can on no account be refunded or cannot be refunded on any account.
On all hands-by all (सभी के द्वारा)-It is admitted on all hands that honesty is the best policy.
On an average – taken as an average (औसत रूप से) – On an average, he earns Rs. 40/- a month.
On one’s account – for one (कि की खातिर) – I am ready to undergo difficulties on your account.
On the strength of – on the ground of (के बल पर) He was awarded a scholarship on the strength of my recommendation.
Part and parcel portion (भाग)-Kashmir has long been a part and parcel of India.
Rhyme or reason valid cause (ठोस कारण)-He turned out his servant without rhyme or reason.
Red-hunded while committing crime (अपराध करते समय) – The thief was caught red-hunded (चोरी करते समय).
Somehow or other – anyhow (किसी तरह)-He managed somehow or other to purchase a motor car for himself.
To learn by heart -to get by heart (याद कर लेना) – He learnt all the lessons by heart.
To rain cats and dogs -to rain heavily (मूसलधार पार बरसाना)-It was raining cats and dogs when he came.
To build castles in the air. – to imagine (हवाई महल बनाना) – It is no use building castles in the air.
To end in smoke – to have no effect (निष्फल होना)-All their attempts to reform the society ended in smoke.
To fall flat-have no effect (बेअसर) – His speech fell falt on the audience,
To go a long way – to do much (बहुत कुछ करना) -The reconmmendation of the headmaster went a long way in securing him a good service.
To hold water to be valid (जायज होना) – Your arguments do not hold water (are not sound or valid).
To lay stress-to emphasize (जोर देना) – The congress leaders laid streass on the need of basic education.
To nip in the bud -to destroy in the beginning (आरम्भ में ही नष्ट कर देना)-All his plans were nipped in the bud owing to his sudden illness.
To poison the ears of-to give false reports (कान भरना, झूठी शिकायत करना) – They were poisoning the ears of the Secretary against that man.
To call to order-(अनुशासित करना) – The teacher called the boys to order when they were making a noise.
To be at one-to agree (सहमत होना) – am at one with him on this point.
Upon one’s sweet will – on one’s own desire (अपनी इच्छा पर) -It depends upon my sweet will whether I do it today or tomorrow.

Micellaneous Phrases

Bed of roses (आनन्दप्रद वस्तु)-Life is not a bed of roses.
A bird’s eye view (सरसरी नजर) – I took a bird’s eye view of the whole place.
Cast Iron will (दृढ़ जो मुड़ना सके)-Sardar Patel was a man of cast iron will.
Chicken hearted (कायर)-A Soldier must not be chicken hearted.
A fair hand (साफ लिखावट)-A candidate gets credit for a fair hand.
A fool’s paradise (झूटी आशा में) -If you hope to pass, you are in a fool’s paradise.
French leave (बिना आज्ञा सा सूचना की अनुपस्थिति)-The student was fined for taking french leave.
With an iron hand (कढ़ाई से)-The riot was supressed with an iron hand.
Jack of all trades (किसी काम में निपुण नहीं, किन्तु सभी कार्यों में हाट डालना)-If · you are a jack of all trades you are master of none.
Maiden speech (जीवन में प्रथम सार्वजनिक भाषण) – The M.P.’s maiden speech was not impressive.
Nick of time (एन मौके पर)-He reached in the meeting at the nick of time.
An open secret (जो गुप्त बात सबको मालूम हो)-It is an open secret that casteism is a key to success in Bihar.
Pandora’s box (वरदान के रूप में अभिशाप)-Several inventions have proved to be a pandora’s box for mankind.
Rank and file (साधारण जनता) – Necessary steps should be taken by the government for the welfare of the rank and life.
Tall talk (घमण्ड भरी लम्बी चौड़ी बातें करना)-One must work, for more tall talk won’t do.
Up to mark (उचित योग्यता के अनरूप) – Most of the students were quite up to the mark.
White elephant (लाभ के स्थान पर हानि की वस्तु)-A motor car is a white elephant for teacher.
Yellow journalism (समाचार पत्रों में सस्ती तथा सनसनी पत्रकारिता, पीत पत्रकारिता) Yellow journalism cannot be appreciated.

Important Questions Solved

Question 1.
Use three of the following idioms and phrases in sentences as to bring out their meaning. [Sample Paper 2009 (A)]
Take after, Make out, Apple of discord, Broken reed, Bring up.
Answer:
Take after – The son takes after his father.
Make out – The police could not make out anything from the available information.
Apple of discord – The house is an apple of discord between the two brother.
Broken reed – Don’t realy on him, he is a broken reed between the two brothers.
Bring up-After his father’s death he was brought up by his uncle.

Question 2.
Use the following idioms and phrases in sentences of your own so as to bring out their meaning clearly. (Sample Paper 2009 (A)]
Answer:
Ups and downs, Rainy day: Vook and corner.
Answer:
Ups and downs – He has seen many ups and donws in his life.
Rainy day – One must lay be something against rainy day lest one should suffer.
Nook and corner – I looked into every nook and corner of my room but I could not find my pen.

Question 3.
Identify idioms and phrases in the composition given below. [Sample Paper 2009 (A)]
(a) Old habits die hard.
(b) Seeing the police, the thief took to his heels.
(c) There is an old lady at the door asking for you.
Answer:
(a) die hard
(b) took to his heels
(c) asking for.

Question 4.
Identify idioms and phrases in the composition given below: (Sample Paper 2009 (A)]
(a) She is intelligent, labourous and above all honest.
(b) By and by every one left the place.
(c) He is a Jack of all trades but master of none.
Answer:
(a) above all
(b) by and by
(c) Jack of all trades.

Question 5.
Use any three of the following idioms and phrases in sentence : (Sample Paper 2009 (A)]
At hand, At any cost, Apples of one’s eye, Look for, Part and Parcel.
Answer:
At hand-My examination is at hand.
At any cost-I have to do it at any cost.
Apples of one’s eye-She is apple of her mother’s eye.
Looks for–He is looking for good job.

Question 6.
Use three of the following idioms and Phrases in sentences of your own : [Board Exam. 2009 (Art)]
ups and downs, tum over, without fail, off and on, above all.
Answer:
Ups and downs-Mohan has seen many ups and down in his life
Turn over – Vikas turned over everything of his room.
Without fail – We must do our duties without fail.
Off and on – He goes to the market off and on.
Above all-Above all we should be kind to poor.

Question 7.
Use the following idioms and phrases in sentences of your own so as to bring out their meaning clearly : [Board Exam. 2009 (Sc. & Com.)]
Ups and downs, Rainy day, Nook and courner.
Answer:
Ups and downs – We should not be disheartened by ups and downs in our life.
Rainy day – We should make necessary arrangement for rainy day in order to avoid inconvenience.
Nook and corner – Every nook and corner of my house is neat and clean.

Question 8.
Use the following Idioms and Phrases in sentences of your own as to bring out their meaning clearly : (Sample Paper 2010 (A)]
(a) call off
(b) come accross
(c) look after.
Answer:
(a) The strike was called off after almost all theiremands were coneded.
(b) While going to the market came across an astrologer who to me lost of things about my past.
(c) Ram looks after the business of his father after his death.

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Bihar Board Class 12 English Paragraph Writing

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Bihar Board Class 12 English Paragraph Writing

1. An ideal Teacher

Mr. Munilal Sinha is an ideal teacher. He is our class-teacher also. He has all the qualities of an ideal teacher. He is very punctual and a strict disciplinarian. He teaches English and Hindi and prepares students for the broad examination. As soon as he comes to our class, he goes round the class¬room to see it is clean. Then he takes roll-call. Then he starts teaching and explaining the lesson well. Outside the class-room, he is very kind and generous. He is always well dressed and never allows any student without uniform. He is respected by teacher, students and guardians because of his ideal qualities.

2. Your Neighbour

I live at Rampur (Nalanda). It is a big village. Mr. Akhileshwar Mahto is my neighbour. He lives just beside my house. He is a teacher. He is an M. A. in Sociology. He is very grave and gentle. Once my father was seriously ill. He daily come to my house. He helped us with money also. He is a good friend, philosopher and guide to us. He has got two sons and a daughter. They are all well behaved. His wife is very noble and gentle. We call her auntie. He is an ideal neighbour.

3. Advantages of living in a town

Town life may have many limitation but its advantages are also great. Modern facilities are within reach. Electricity, water and transport are easily available. Roads are better. Houses are made comfortable. All towns have schools and colleges. There are big hospitals. All kinds of things can be had. It is easier for people to earn .a living. Children have parks to play. Students can go to good libraries. Clubs, playgrounds, etc. help young men in growing up well. So they develop a modem outlook. Yougmen and women are smarter and bolder. Good doctors can be called, in case someone falls ill. In short, town life has both glamour and comfort.

4. Health is wealth

Health is wealth is an old saying. A healthy person is able to produce all wealth for himself and for others. Not only this but he can also enjoy wealth and produce more. Suppose a man has a first class master’s degree, but he has no health. He catches cold. He catches flu. He has T. B . and other such diseases. How can he produce wealth and enjoy it ? Health depends on correct living, pure water and fresh air. It also depends on good food, necessary rest and equally necessary physical work or exercise. If a man cares for all these and has limited desires, he can maintain good health. Then he can produce more wealth and he can enjoy it.

5. Morning walk

Walking is a good exercise. Every one can practise it without any trouble. It brings energy. We can walk both the times, morning and evening. Morning walk is the better of the two. Evening walk is also very useful. It is a very good habit. For this, every one has to get up very early in the morning. He can soon start for the bank of a river, a canal or a pond. He may go to a park in a town. There he gets fresh air. He sees the sun rise. They are very useful to health. His mind gets fresh. He can work very peacefully all day long. Walking costs is nothing. We may walk with our friends and relatives. Our talks should be healthy then. Evening walk also brings sound sleep in the night.

6. The season h ike most

Spring is the best season of the year. It is called the queen of the season. The earth looks very beautiful in this season. Different kinds of flower bloom in the spring. The smiling flowers give us a lot of joy. They make us forget our cares and anxieties. When we walk in the garden we are filled with joy. The cuckoo is mad with joy. Its sweet notes charm us. The days of the spring are very pleasant. The spring brings beautiful sights and charming sounds. It is the season of joy. That is why I like most spring season.

7. The importance of newspaper or Newspaper

Newspapers are necessary for people. A newspaper is must. It plays an important role in the society. It is useful to many ways. It brings us news, people wait for it eagerly in the morning. It is a kind of mental food. Some people read a newspaper for its views. There is comment on current topics in a newspaper. There are articles written by learned persons. Somebody reads a newspaper for advertisement for jobs. There are literary articles. A newspaper covers sports, business, politics etc. It enlightens the public.

8. Aim of your life

The aim of my life is to become a professor, I want to study hard. I like to go England or America for higher education. If I get a job there, I shall accept it. I want to work hard and make name in the world. But I do not want to live in a foreign country. I shall return to India. I like a peaceful and happy life. I want to love and educate my children. I want to earn money. I want to spend some of it on poor people. If I have more and more money, I shall spend more and more on them. In the end I want to serve the people and the nation. This is the aim of my life.

9. A Popular student of your school

I read in Nalanda Collegiate Senior Secondary High school, Bihar Sarif, Nalanda. There are one thousand four hundred students in this school. All are good. But Suresh Mishra is the most popular student of my school. He is very intelligent and deligent. He is tall and handsome. He always stands first in his class. He is very obedient, social, noble, brave and patient. He takes and active part in the game and sports of the school. He is good player of cricket and football specially. He is never absent from the class. All teachers love him most. He is certainly an ideal student.

10. Winter season

Winter is an important season. It starts in November and lasts upto to February. Days are short and nights are long in this season. The days of winter are very fine. We like to sit in the sun and warm our body. On the other hand the nights are cold. We need warm clothes in this season. Water is a season of fruits and flowers. We find many varieties of flowers in this season. This season is good for health. But the poor do not like this season because many of them do not have proper clothes to fight cold.

11. Importance of games and sports

Games and sports are an important part of our life. They keep us healthy. They refresh our weary minds. They are useful both for our mind and body. Physically we become healthy, mentally we become disciplined. They give us courage and make us alert. They make us bold and confident. They develop in us a spirit of co-operation. They teach us to fight in a healthy spirit. A sportsman fights with his rival in the playground. But he has no ill will against him. Thus games and sports help to make us good citizens. Our education is incomplete without games and sports. The government of India is encouraging games and sports in educational institutions.

12. Early rising

There are many advantages of early rising. A man who rises early has more hours for walk. So, he can produce more, earn more and live more happily. A man who gets up late hates himself. He is hated by others, too. Rise early and you are the master of your programme. Get up late and you are late in everything. You are late to Nature’s call, late in bath, late in breakfast and late for your lesson. So, you are a loser. We must try to go to bed early and try to get up early. Early rising is really a very nice thing.

13. The beggar

Beggars can be seen at every public place in India. They are found at railway station, bus stand, picture homes, market place and footpath. He is a very poor person. His dress is dirty and tom. Some are blind, Some are lame, Some cannot even stand but have to crawl on their hands and feet. He has a bag with him. He has a bowl too. Some have stick with them. The beggar begs alms. Some sing pleasant songs. Beggar’s life depends upon the charity. Begging is a crime. They should not be encouraged. In our country there is a gang of unsocial elements. They force little children to beg. They exploit these children. There is no one to take care of beggars.

14. A visit to a circus

It was a happy day. We went to see the great circus. Outside the great top, people were busy buying tickets and gettign in. Inside, the gallery was full. The show started. Artists in colourful dresses showed great feats. Brave acts in air, bold tricks on tight ropes, and the joker all these were amusing. Then came animals. Goats on lion’s back, dogs on horses and the big elephant worshipping Lord Ganesh, how well the animals were trained. Then came the girls doing wonder on bicycles. The man with eyes covered threw knives at a girl. The jeep and motor cycles were exciting. Three hours passed quickly. It was a time full of surprise and joy. How bold and disciplined are the circus men !

15. The postman

The postman is an important employee of the postal department. He is one of the most useful public servant. He wears a khaki uniform. He carries a bag with him. He carries letters, money orders and parcels in it. He brings news and money to us. His duty is very hard. He goes to the post office in the morning. He sorts out the dak for the different areas. He goes from door to door to deliver letters, money orders and parcels. He is not highly educated still he does his duty properly. He is a very honest man. Every one awaits his arrival, though sometimes he brings sad news also. He is a low paid employee though he performs essential duties. We pay him some tips for bringing happy and good news.

16. Television

Television is one of the wonders of science. It is a source of joy and knowledge, information and entertainment. Television is the product of the latest electronic revolution. The names of John. Baird of England and Jenking of America are associated with television. They first of all succeeded in transmitting moving pictures in 1923. It was in 1936 that a public television system was introduced in London. It started with black and white.

Now-a-days coloured television is popular. It is a powerful audio-visual medium. It is seen in all towns and big cities. It has a status-symbol also. It is useful for the people. Its programmes cover a variety of interest. It has great education value too. We learn a lot about development of science, agriculture and medicine.

17. Your school

I read in Senior Secondary High School Machhil, Jahanabad. It is one of the oldest school in the district. It has a good reputation for its teaching and discipline. The headmaster is a kind and learned man. Most of the teachers are very learned and experienced. My class teacher Mr. B. K. Verma is a good disciplinarian. But he is kind too and has love for students. The building of my school is simple, but its campus is calm and calm. Five hundred boys and girls read in this school. Most of the students get first division in the Secondary School Examination. There is a provision for games and sports. All games are played. We take part in it. Annual function is held every year. Good students are rewarded. There is a small garden in front of the school. We are proud of our school.

18. Indian farmer

India is a land of villages. Most of the people here live in villages. Our country is an agricultural country. But the condition of the farmer is miserable. An Indian farmer has a hard life. He lives in a village. Most of the Indian farmers are illiterate. They follow the old method of farming. An Indian farmer gets a low return from his field. His farming depends on nature. Sometimes he has to face flood and drought. He is often in debt. He has to work in hot summer, cold winter and heavy rains. He gets up early and feed his bullocks. He goes to the field with his bullocks. He is not able to get two times meal. The government should pay attention to the defects of the farmers.

19. The book i like most

Books are the treasure of knowledge. They are of much use to us, I have read many books but I like the Bhagwat Gita most. It is a part of the Mahabharat. Lord Krishna throrugh this Bhagwad Gita preached Arjuna. Arjuna did not like to fight in the battle-field. He was disillusioned. Lord Krishna gave him the message of Nishkam karma. He told him that a man must go on doing his duty without any motive to fulfil his desires. He told Arjuna that the soul is immortal whereas this body is perishable. Thus he should not get worried about the death of Drona and Bhishma. Thus the immortality of soul has been very well presented in the Gita. It has rich philosophy. It gives us peace of mind.

20. My school garden

My school has a beautiful garden. The garden is surrounded by the school building. There are many kinds of flowers and plants. There is a gardener also.

He looks after the garden. But students also take care of it. During S. U. P. W. period we water the plants. We also weed out unwanted growth. But trimming and cutting is done by the gardenr. Our teachers and the Headmaster also take keen interest in gardening. There are seasonal as well as evergreen plants. In winter and spring, the garden is beautiful to look at. There are numerous flowers. They dance with the waves of the wind. The garden adds much to the grandeur of our school building. Therefore, our school is called an island of excellence.

21. Picnic

A picnic is a pleasant affairs, some young boys meet. They buy raw food- slaff Ecery thing for lighter feasting is sarried to a selected spot. This spot is a river bank, Forest areas or hilly tops. The selected members or boys go to the selected spot. They begin to prepare food. They eat it. Then they start to sing a song, Play musical instrument and dance. A variety of entertainment is the special features of a picnic, if removes the dulles and monotony of life. It also bring people closer than before. It develops co-operative view. It develops the idea that self help is the best help. It increases the power of tolerance and regard to each other. It gives a new energy and zeal.

22. Your hobby

Every man has got a hobby. My hobby is to read religious books. There are a number of religious books. Of all these books. I like the Ramayan, the Quoran, the Gita, the Mahabharat and the Bible. All of them are full of lessons. They teach us to be good. They are full of Science, Arts, Philosphy and what not. I have learnt much from them and quote their lines time to time to bring about some changes in men. I always attend some religious meetings and listen to the lectures of speeches of great scholars. I put up before them some doubts if any and try to get satisfied with their explanations. I have got full faith in God who has created us and he alone gives us everything for our comforts. I love all who have been created by God. God loves all equally. I go to religious places.

23. Rainy season

The rainy season has got a very important place in our agriculture production. All the food crops depend upon rain. The rainy season starts in the middle of June and last upto August. Sometimes in lasts in the middle of October. Nature present very charming sights in this season. There is water everywhere. Roads and fields are full of water. Farmers are very happy. Rain is essential for all kinds of life and plants all dirty things are washed away. Plants put up new leaves. Some time it rains too much. Then there is flood. It is very fearful. Farmers begin tilling the lands and planting paddy and other crops. So the rainy season is very useful for us.

24. Your headmaster or principal

Mr. Sheo Ratan Pandey is the Headmaster of our school. He wears dhoti and kurta. He is trained M.A. His knowledge is deep. He teaches well. He is a good manager. He keeps the school neat and clean. He has a strong sense of discipline. He obeys rules. Other follow him. So there is peace in the school. Good boys love him. Teachers respected him. People honour him. He punishes bad boy. To spare the rod is to spoil the child. He knows it. Some times he takes the classes. He inspires his teachers for better performance in the class. He is man of plain living and high thinking.

25. The village fair

The fair is generally held in a big, spacious place, outside a village. It is connected by roads leading to all the neighbouring village. It is held on some religious occasions. Shopkeepers from town and village come there to sell their commodities. All the shops are arranged in rows. Vast crowds gather to see the fair and buy things. The fair also provides many kinds of amusements to the villagers. The cinema, the circus, magic shows etc. given them a good deal of entertainment. Women and children all enjoy these shows. The village fair is a necessity for the villagers. It gives an occasion to them to meet friends and relatives.

26. Your village

I live in a village. Its name is Pratappur. It is in the district of Saran. My village is situated on the road side. There are six thousand people in my village. Most of the villagers are farmer. My village has a good library. There are few shops and a small market in my village also. There is a Middle School a High school and newly open college for girls also in my village. About 60% of populations of my village is educated. There is a health centre with very good doctor in my village. Life in the village is simple with little comfort. But people are friendly. They are free from evil habits. Our village people live away from the evils of city life. I like my village. It’s atmosphere is very good.

27. National flag

Flag has got a very important place in the life of a nation. It is a symbol of freedom. Almost all nations have their own flags. After 1947 when India became free from the British rule, tehn it has acepted tri-colours flag. Our national flag has three colours—saffron, white and green. The saffron colour at the top stands for service and sacrifice. The white colour in the middle stands for truth, purity and peace. The green colour at the bottom stands for faith, prosperity and energy. In the middle of white colour there is the Ashoka Chakra which shows that virtues never die. our national flag is our glory. It shows that we are independent. So we have to protect and honour the national flag.

28. A railway station

A railway station is very important for the development. It is cheap and useful means of transportation. The railway station of my town is small. But most of trains of this root stop at this station. At the time of arrival of a train there is a big rush I always go to the station and see the big crowd. There are howkers on the platform who sell fruits, tea and other commodities. There are also some coolies for helping the passengers in carrying their luggage. I see there is a long queue at the booking counter for tickets. My house is near the station. So I feel some disturbance. There is always hue and cry from the morning till late night.

29. The ganga

The Ganga is the most sacred river in the world. Its water is pure. There are many important cities on its banks. The Ganga rises from the Himalayas and flows to the south. The ganga is about 2,410 kilometres long. Its end is in the bay of Bengal. Its banks are always full of people in the morning and evening where people are bathing, praying and giving charity to the needy persons. We believe that after taking a bath in its holy water our sins will be perished. Hindus wish to die at its banks. The land on both sides of the rivers is fertile. The Ganga is full of water all the year. So it is very helpful in our agriculture also. Bathing in the Ganga is good for health also, on religious occasions people come to take bathe in the holy water. It is so sacred that people call it goddess mother.

30. Travelling is a means of education

Education through travelling is the best play-way method. From the moment the journey is planned, children begin to pass sleepless nights. They go on asking their parents when to start. We see new places-historical, geographical, zoological and botanical. A geography lesson may be bomig. But it becomes clear to us whenwe see rivers, mountains etc with our own eyes. Museums, zoological gardens, monuments, coins and picture galleries give us a clear idea of history. We learn manners and behaviour intrains, in hotel, and from fellow passengers through-travelling we leam many things through travelling what we cannot leam in the class-rdom so, travelling is a means of education.

31. Advantages of self study

Self study means the study of the self, by the self and for the self in actual sense of the term. But popularly by self study we mean studies on one’s own through library books or other resources. We cannot inject any amount of knowledge into student’s veins. But they should try to to gain knowledge by the use of observations through their five sense organs. Self study can be done further by reading more and more wisely-written book. Periodicals, weeklies and daily newspapers are there to help us in our self-study. It is much better source of having a background to prepare than the coaching done in masses, in schools and colleges. Self-study enriches our knowledge and also makes us self-confident and self-reliant in life.

32. The importance of student life

Students life is the golden period of life. A student has to make use of it in the best possible way. He has to learn from books, From the family and from the society. He must learn from schools and colleges. He should learn how to live and let others live. He should develop his mind. But he should not neglect his body. He should also develop a sense of duty to our maker. He has to prepare his lessons and take part in games and sports. He should realise that student life is a time for preparation for the rest of life. Hence, it is very important period. In a nut shell it can be said that student life is not a bed of roses but a bed of thorns.

33. Cinema

Cinema is very common now. The cinema has many advantages. It is one of the gifts of science. A film presents the drama of human life. We see new places, big rivers and high mountains in a film. We find in a film what we read on the pages of the book of History, Geography or Science. We learn many other things from a film. Thus teaching pictures is more lasting in the memory A film is a cheap means of entertainment. It gives us Pleasures. It removes our dullness. Beatiful scenes, sweet songs, heart touching music and thrilling dances take us to different world. And for the some time we forget the world around us. These are some of the advantages of the Cinema.

34. Pet animals or domestic animals

God made both men and animals. Some animals are wild; some are domestic. The domestic animals live with or near us. They serve out needs some way or the other. We have the cow, the buffalo and the goat. We have the horse. In the past, people went to distant places on horseback. Even today we ride on the horse. The elephant is very useful to us. The dog is a friend to man. It is faithful to its master. It takes care of him and his property. The cat is another domestic animal which likes to live in the house. It kills rats and plays with children. Monkeys live in trees but help us in different ways. So, all the domestic animals serve us; help us and make our life easy and comfortable.

35. Time is money / the value of time

Money can be paid back but time can never be regained. Time is the most valuable thing in the world. Time that is lost is lost for ever. Anything can wait but time does not wait for anyone. So, we must try to make the best use of time. If we utilise time in a proper way, we can get success in all walks of life. A student who uses his time well fares well at the examination. Time is more important than money. If the train runs late, thousands of passengers waste their time. If time is wasted, all the plans and projects get delayed and the nation has to suffer. We often hear the phrase ‘Indian time’. We should hang our head in shame because even hours have no meaning for us. Let us understand the value of time and get what we really deserve. In fact, time is money.

36. There isanyslip between the cupandthelip

This proverb deals with a situation where we expect to achieve something which may not be achieved ultimately. In our life sometimes it happens that we come to the point of getting our object but in the meantime Somethings happens which upsets our aim, we never imagine that something untoward would happen. So, we should always have their thing in our mind that we should not be over sure of anything, unless we get thing in our hand. We should not exultant. If we keep this thing in oUr mind. We will never feel disappointed in life.

37. Truth alone Triumphs

This saying lays emphasis on the value of truth in life. It is very difficult to follow truth because the path of truth is full of with difficulties. To be false is easier than to be true. Most of us follow the easy path. It requires strength of character to follow truth. To follow truth is paustaking. We are often beared by instant gain in life. We have no patience to see the result of truth. It requires Persererance. In the beginning. Falsehood seems to be victorious but this victory is short lived. The ultimate victory lies with truth. Truth never fails. Falsehood succeeds only temporarily.

38. Astttchin time Savesnine

This proverb is a good lesson for us. It teaches us that we ought to save one and it must double one day. It is our folly to thing that one has got no value before mine. Unless we save one we can’t get nine. What a fine instance was put up here our shirt is as it tom, westitch if then and there we go on using it for some time. If we don’t take any action, the wore shirt will tom to pieces very soon. Nothing is triffling A piece of strand has got some value. It saves our life some times Nothing should be allowed to be wasted. Take care of everything under your possession.

39. Don’t Bewise only after the event

This saying deals with a situation where we learn only after experience. Not all of us are wise people. A wiseman is motivated by his wisdom. He never earns. An ordinary man seldom takes wise decision people learn from experience. Experience is our teacher. It is not possible that everybody of us will be rise at all hours. Though we all cannot be rise, we can take caution to avoid false step. To be wise before the event is certainly better than as to the wise after the event.

40. The duties of your class monitor

Our class monitor has some duties. He maintains the class in absence of the teather. He takes roll-call if the class teacher in absent. He leads his companions to the assembly spot. There he has to make us fall in line quickly. It is his duty to maintain discipline in the class. He sees that students sit on their allotted seats. If two students quarrel, the monitor settles the matter. If any student disobeys him, he reports to the class teacher of the Headmaster. In the period of games, he takes us out to the playground. His name is Anuj. All of us love him. It makes his job easier. The monitor is next to our class teachers for us.

41. Importance of Discipline

Discipline is easy to recognise but difficult to define. It influences every thing that we do in our life. In fact, we never succeed unless we work with a sense of discipline. We move orderly. We act with respect for rules. We follow a system. In fact, discipline is a way of life. That is why it is best learnt in childhood, at home and in school. Study and games both require a sense of discipline. A disciplined society lives in peace. National discipline is necessary for progress. Nature is the best teacher for learning discipline. Discipline is the key to success in every sphere of life. If is also the product of love and peace. We can not force it down on anyone. It flows out of love and regard for rules.

42. Educational value of travelling

Education through travelling is the best play-way method. From the moment the journey is planned, children begin to pass sleepless nights. They go on asking their parents when to start. We see new places historical, geographical, zoological and botanical. A geography lesson may be homing. But it becomes clear to us when we see rivers, mountains etc. with our own eyes. Museums, zoological gardens, monuments, coins and picture galleries give us a clear idea of history. We learn manners and behaviour in trains, in hotels and from fellow passengers through travelling. We learn many things through travelling what we cannot learn in the class-room so travelling is means of education.

43. The game you like most or. my favourite game

Of all the games, I like football most. It is an outdoor game. It is played between twenty two players; eleven in each side. Here is one refree. He refrees the play. All have to obey him. No body can go against his order. He is our master there. This play is an education. ‘It is a ball of discipline, obedience, health, manners and what not. All have to remain cautious all the time. No body can deceive any one here. It is a very good play for our recreation and health. It is a part of education. Recreation is also a part of education. ‘We ought to play it regularly. It is an international game.

44. A great national leader

India has produced a number of great men. Out of all, Mahatma Gandhi is one of them. Of course Mahatma Gandhi was a great leader of India. He was bom on 2nd October, 1869 in Gujarat. He was great right from his childhood. He worked for the freedom of India. He was sent of jail several times. He was kicked and beaten by the British rulers. ButGandhiji wanted India’s is freedom in peaceful way. He was a simple man. He believed in love, truth and non¬violence. He loved all men as his brothers. He worked for the good of Hadzans and other poor people He was killed by NaturanT Godse on 30th January, 1948. His body died but his soul is not dead. Even today he is loved and respected all over the world.

45. The work of street hawker

Street hawkers are a common sight in town. But some of them go into villages too. They sell fruits, vegetables, toys, ice-cream, cosmetics and utensils etc., they bring these necessities of life at our door-steps. They attract their customers by singing and shouting loudly. Their margin of profit is civins. Their articles are cheaper than those sold in big shops. They save us from the trouble of going to distant market. They do not cheat the customers who are known to them. They earn their living by hard labour and honest dealings. They are carring heavy load on head on the day. Their work is hard and arduous. Some hawkers cheat the customers by selling inferior goods. They are expert in hanggling and bargaining. They are useful members of the society.

46. Rickshaw-puller

The life of rickshaw puller is generally miserable. His poor health and tattered clothes tell the story of his wants and miseries. He leads a hard life He works hard from dawn to dusk but he can not live in comfort He pulls the rickshaw in hot, summer, cold winter and heavy rains. In spite of his hard labour he does not earn much His income is small but he has to maintain his family on that income He always runs the risk of being knocked down by speeding truck. He may falla prey to fatal diseaees. He has little money to take care of himself in his illness. How miserable the life of the rickshaw-puller is!

47. A football match

Last week a football natch was played between our school and Town High School, Monghyr. It was played in the playground of our school. The play started at 4 P.M. The match was an exciting one. At the on set the lplayers. were offensive. Our school players passed forward with the half of the centre forward. After abou ten minutes both the teams started playing vigorously. The goal keeper of ’ oth the teams had a very hard time to defend the goal posts. At last our school team scored a goal and defeated the town High school by one goal to nil. Everyone in the side clapped out of joy. The match was thrilling and interesting all along. It was Ramu one of our five towards whose brilliant shot decided the fate. Our Principal was pleased for see the game. He hosted a dinner to all players and teachers of the school in the night.

48. Independence day

India got freedom on August 15, 1947. So August 15th is called the independence day of India. It is a red letter day in the history of India. The British rule came to an end on this day. We got independence after a long struggle. Thousands of people lost their life in the battle for independence. We fought for our freedom under the able leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. He led our freedom movement.

A galaxy of Indian leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhle, Subhash Chandra Bose, Motilal Nehru, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Jay Prakash Narayan, Acharya Nrendra Deo, Lala Lajpat Roy and others sacrified a lot for the independence of our country. As the day is a memorable day in the history of India it is celebrated all over the country with great enthusiasm. It is national holiday. The national flag is hoisted on all Government buildings in the country. A big public meeting is held in Delhi. The Prime Minister, unfurls the national flag at the Red Fort. Great homage is paid to those who laid down their lives for the freedom of the country. We should protect our hard won freedom at any costs. The 15th August brings a message for us. It is a message of great sacrifice for the country.

49. The barber

A barber is a person whose trade is shaving and hair cutting. In India, a barber is a necessary and important part of the society. This is more or less a specialized profession which goes by heredity. Every person needs a hair cut from time to time. These days there are luxurious saloons in cities for people of means. The barbers owing saloons call themselves hair-dressers. Nowa-days there are hair-dressing saloons for ladies also. They are being called beauty parlours. But for the large number of common men, there are the road – side barbers. Road-side barbers serve the laboureres and the commoners at cheaper rates. The barber serve the society on ceremony, sacred thread ceremony, marriage ceremony and shradh ceremonies.

50. A village market

The place where things are brought and sold is called a market. The village market is very important for villagers. It is not permanent. It is held twice or thrice a week. It fulfills the needs of several adjoining villages. It is held in an open place where hundreds of people gather to buy and sell their articles. The day is a busy day for the villagers on the market day there is great activity in the villages. Small traders and businessmen come to he market with their articles. The villagers also bring their own products for sale. As there are not any permanent stall for the venders. Most of them sit on the ground with their things of sale. There are rows for different articles. Articles of daily necessities are only sold there. Food grains, vegetables, seeds, clothe agriculture implements utensils and many other things of their needs are sold there. It is a meeting place for many villagers, women also participate in it. It is a boon for villagers. They sell their home made products there. They do not got to the near by towns or cities for these things of their needs. Fish and meat markets have their special attraction.

51. The washerman

The washerman is a useful member of our society as he washes our clothes. He works hard from dawn to dusk but he does not earn much. He collects dirty clothes from different houses. He boils them in a solution of water and soda for some time. Then he takes them to a river or tank and washes them. He spreads them in the sun for drying. Then he irons the washed clothes and returns them to their owners. In spite of his hard labour he does not earn a lot of money. So his condition is miserable. He has little money to maintain his family.

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