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BSEB Bihar Board 12th English Book 50 Marks Solutions Chapter 4 On Letter Writing
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Bihar Board Class 12 English On Letter Writing Text Book Questions and Answers
a. What did Bill find so difficult ?
Bill found it so difficult to write a letter each to his mother, wife, Bob, Sarah, Aunt, Uncle Jin and a host of others at a time.
b. Why was bill no longer fighting at the front line ?
Bill was no longer fighting at the front line because he was on sick leave.
c. Why do some people have difficulty in writing letters ?
Some people have difficulty in writing letters because they have on gift of self-expression.
d. Why was letter writing done more carefully in the past ?
Letter-writing was done more carefully in the past because at those days people had more leisure for such work and postage was much more expensive than it is today.
e. How did the dalesmen avoid the postal charges ?
The dalesmen avoided the postal charges by sending their unstamped letters to their very close relatives by stage coach which they received and without opening them made out from a certain agrued sign on it that the sender was well and immediaely retunrd it to the carrier.
Or, The dalesman used to send unstamped letters to their very close relatives through stage coach. The addressee looked at the address and received it just for a while. Then he or she saw the sign previously agreed upon on the letter telling him or her that the sender was well. No sooner it was noticed, then the letter was returned to the carrier unopened. IN this way the dalesmen avoided the postal charges.
f. What has finally helped to destroy the art of great letter-writing?
Recent means of communication such as telegraph, telephone and typewriter have finally helped to distroy the art great letter-writing.
g. What kind of things could bill have talked about in his letter ?
Bill could have talked about such trival matters as the injury on his heel, scarcity of cigarettes his long and tedious march loss of his friend at Le catean location and dropping off his boot side at Meanx.
h. What trick did Carlyle have to perfection ?
Carlyle had a trick to perfection in letter-writing. He wrote his letter in the lightest’and most casual way giving a personal touch to it. He had the gift of describing things at his place in such an intimate manner that the reader automatically save persons and events at long distance immediately before his eyes.
i. What feature of Keat’s charactr is mentioned ?
Family affection was the main feature of Keats’ characters.
j. What is the difference between a good essay and a good letter ?
A good essay is written in orderly and elabourate style while a good letter is written in casual and intimate way bearing a personal touch of the writer.
In exercise 2 to 4 below re-write all the sentences like sentence (ii) below:
(i) you have been compelled to do it (ii) you have had to do it.
a. He has been competed to sell his car.
He has had to sells his car.
b. They have been compelled to break the window.
They have had to break the window.
c. He has been compelled to dismiss his secretary.
He had to dismiss his Secretary.
d. I have been compelled to find a new flat.
I have to find a new flat.
(i) It was the penny post that killed it.
(ii) It was killed by the penny post.
a. It was the local police who caught him.
He was caught by the local police.
b. It was the original owner who planted it.
It was planted by the original owner.
c. It was the old man who found it.
It was found by the old man.
d. It was her sister who told her.
She was told by her sister.
(i) The dalesmen of Lakeland often dodged the postal charges.
(ii) The dalesmen of Lakeland used to dodge the postal charges.
a. They often wrote about personal details.
They used to write about personal details.
b. They often bought buffalo milk.
They used to buy buffallo milk.
c. We often went and saw him in hospital.
We used to go and see him in hospital.
d. People often composed long letters.
People used to compose long letters.
Find the expression in die extract cheap postage was about to come in:
The Write at least six sentences from the following substitution table:
- The meeting was about to begin
- The meeting was about to finish.
- The ceremoney was about to begin.
- The ceremony was about of finish.
- The ceremony was to be filmed.
- The ceremony was about to be repeated.
- The lecture was about to begin.
- The lecture was about to finish.
- The lecture was about to be broadcast.
In the sentences below certain words or phrases are in italics.
Use words or phrases from this extract in their place so as to give the same meaning.
(a) He admitted that had stolen the watch.
(b) Some people have no ability to express themselves.
(c) Will they bear the cost of the postage ?
(d) How can we avoid those charges ?
(e) He looked briefly at the notice, and then left.
(f) We have seen the beginning of the atomic age.
(g) I got these ornaments for a very small price.
(h) I have always valued those old coins.
(i) Sharks are very common in the Indian Ocean.
(j) When I drop my handkerchief, you bend down to pick it up.
(a) He confessed that he had stolen the watch.
(b) Some people have no gift of self expression.
(c) Will they bear the expense of the postage ?
(d) How can we dodge those charges ?
(e) He glanced at the notice, and then left.
(f) We have seen the advent of the atomic age. .
(g) I got these ornaments for a few pence.
(h) I have always treasured those old coins.
(i) Sharks are very plentiful in the Indian Ocean.
(j) When I drop my handkerchief, you stoop to pick it up.
Use the following words or phrases once only in the following sentences:
take ……….. seriously, intend to, at heavy expense, recipe, dumb, offended, elaborate, preserve, retreat, paralyse.
(a) You can …………. fish you put salt over it.
(b) The general …………. because’the enemy are too strong.
(c) He is rather lazy; he doesn’t …………. his work ………….
(d) Certain diseases …………. the limbs.
(e) Do you know the …………. for Christmas pudding ?
(f) He was …………. because I didn’t write to him.
(g) He has gone to a special school for the ………….
(h) He has gold watch with a very …………. face.
(i) He bought himself a new car ………….
(b) intend to retreat
(c) take, seriously
(i) at heavy expense.
Write a short letter to a friend. In it, describe the scene around you with any amusing details.
22 Feb. 20….
My dear Shashank,
Received your letter a few days back. I might have replied earlier but for my youngest brother’s mischief when wrote his alphabet on the inland letter and spoiled it within mi lutes while I was filling ink in to my pen next door. You know how naughty Pinkoo is.
I am about to start the letter but the scene across the window is tempting. Three santhat peasants staggaring on the road. They are dead drunk. Today is Friday the biweety market day. On Monday and Friday this scene is very common at Patna. These three comrades have stopped, they are looking back in anger at a baring dog which has been perhaps at their heals from the market place. Kids are making fun of them. They are muttering something. But why are they moving towards the pond.
I can watch their activities at the pond from the northen window. It’s realy exciting. Two of them have already got into the water while the other has preferred to sit and watch them. They are splashing water at one another and hen take a dip. Kids have assembled there to have the fun. The two drunkards have gone into the deep water. I hear a commotion ‘Help, help, I hear the shouts clearly, they are drowning. The children there, are laughing while a Sanlhal on the maggin is weeping. They might have drowned but for two passers bye who hearing the shouts rescue them.
It’s a long digression. Isn’t it ? Kapil and Kumud, my younger brothers have slipped out of the house with their kites mother. They are surely to have good beating as soon as they return. How is your preparation ? Mine is not up to my satisfaction. You can’t depend on college lectures, you have to depend upon yourself study for better results.
Come down to Patna as soon as your examination is over by that time mine too would be finished. We will go to Massanjore, a beautiful spot and will have good time there. How are Aunti and Uncle. Convey my pranam to them.
Soliciting an early reply.
Shri Bishundeo Prasad
C/o Jitendra Kumar
Boring Road, Patna
Attempt a critical appreciation of the essay entitled On Letter-Writing.
On Letter Writing is an interesting essay written by A. G. Gardiner. Gardiner occupies an eminent place in the real of the dilightful essayists of the modem world. He writes in a light and easy manner. In the present essay.
On Letter Writing Word Meanings
Evidently = स्पष्टता | latter = बाद वाला । Mourn fully = उदासीपूर्वक । Offend = चोट पहुँचाना । mention = उल्लेख करना । mournfully = विषादपूर्वक । scratch = खुजलाना । blessed = आशीषित । ridiculous = हास्यास्पद | front = मोर्चा | retreat = पीछे हटना । advance = आगे बढ़ना । confess = स्वीकार करना । suppose = कल्पना करना । self-expression = आत्माभिव्यक्ति । paralyse = आशक्त कर देना | atmosphere = वातावरण । concrete = ठोस । lead = आगे बढ़ाने वाला सूत्र | immortal = अमरणशील । leisurely = अवकाशमय । indulge = लिप्त होना । luxury = शान-शौकत । expense = व्यय, खर्च | dodge= धोखा देना, बच निकलना । stage coach = घोड़ा गाड़ी, बग्घी, जिससे मोटर एवं रेलवे के आविष्कार से पूर्व लोग यात्राएँ करते थे और डाक भी ढोई जाती थी I glance = एक झलक देखना । carrier = ढोने वाला, लाने वाला | globe= पृथ्वी। advent = आगमन । destruction = विनाश । scarcity = दुर्लभता । treasured valuable = मूल्यवान | plentiful = अधिक मात्रा में । pebble = ढेला । stoop = झुकना । comrade= मित्र । intimate= अंतरंग | blister = फोड़ा । heel = एंडी ।
hunger = भूखा रहना । march = पैदल आगे बढ़ना । pal = साथी । sole = तल्ला । trivialtites = छोटी-छोटी चीजें । approach = पहुँच । job = कार्य । casual = सहज, सामान्य । personal = व्यक्तिगत | abstract= अमूर्त । purpose= उद्देश्य । perfection= श्रेष्ठता I operations = काम-धाम | moisten = भींगना । message = संदेश | pour = ढालना | affection = स्नेह । pleasant = सुखद | feature = तत्त्व | gateway = द्वार । intend = चाहना । _volume = परिणाम | order = व्यवस्था । recipe = नुस्खा | craft = कला | interrupt = बीच में टोकना । separation = अलगाव । preserve= सुरक्षित रखना | commonplace = सामान्य । colloquial = बातचीत के लहजे वाला । familiarity = परिचितता | supreme = सर्वश्रेष्ठ | elaborate-detailed = तफसीली ।
On Letter Writing Summary in Hindi
पत्र-लेखन एक कला है । अच्छा पत्र कैसे लिखें यही A.G. Gardiner’s के निबन्ध “On Letter-writing” का विषय है । उसके निबन्धों में हमें विचारों और भावनाओं तथा सौन्दर्य एवं स्वरूप का सुन्दर सामंजस्य देखने को मिलता है । उसके निबन्ध “खुली धूप और मस्ती तथा हास्य एवं शान्ति” से भरपूर होते हैं । उसका यह निबन्ध उसके “Pebbles on the shore” नामक संग्रह से लिया गया है, जो पहली बार 1915 में प्रकाशित हुआ था ।
गार्डिनर, निबन्ध का प्रारम्भ बिल और सैम नामक दो सैनिकों में होने वाली बातचीत से करता है । बिल अपनी ड्यूटी पर अपने कैम्प जा रहा है । सैम उसको रेलवे स्टेशन पर विदा करने आया है । लेखक बिल का सहयात्री है । ट्रेन खुलने से ठीक पहले बिल और सैम पत्र-लेखन की कठिनाइयों की चर्चा कर रहे हैं । उनको यही नहीं समझ में आता है कि वे अपने पत्रों में क्या लिखें । जब ट्रेन खुलती है, बिल युद्ध में विभिन्न मोर्चों पर अपने तरह तरह-तरह के अनुभवों के विषय में लेखक को बताता है । लेकिन बिल भी उन हजारों नौजवानों की ही तरह है जो जीवन में विविध एवं व्यापक अनुभवों को प्राप्त करने के बाद भी उनके विषय में अपने पत्रों में कुछ भी लिख नहीं पाते ।
गार्डिनर के अनुसार पत्र-लेखक एक लुप्तप्राय कला है तथा इसके अनेक कारण हो सकते हैं । निश्चय ही उनमें से एक है, डाक-दरों में दिनानुदिन होती कमी । दूसरा बड़ा कारण है आधुनिक जीवन की भाग-दौड़, जबकि किसी के पास इस कोमल कला की साधना के लिए पर्याप्त समय नहीं रह गया है । पहले के जमाने में पत्रों का भेजना एक बहुत अधिक खर्चीला एवं कठिन कार्य होता था । पत्रों को अपने गन्तव्य तक पहुँचने में हफ्तों-महीनों लग जाते थे । पत्रों का लिखना
और उनको पढ़ना दोनों ही बातें उन दिनों एक महत्वपूर्ण घटना होती थी । लेकिन कालक्रम से डाक-दरें बहुत घट गयी हैं और डाक का आना-जाना भी बहुत तेज हो गया है । इन सब ने पत्र-लेखन कला का लगभग विनाश ही कर दिया है ।।
फिर भी यह सत्य है कि बिल और सैम की तरह के हजारों लोगों के लिए अच्छा पत्र लिखने की जरूरत बराबर बनी रहेगी । किन्तु अच्छे पत्र लेखन का रहस्य उसकी अंतरंगता में छिपा हुआ है। उसका तरीका हल्का और सरल रहना चाहिए । उसे व्यक्तिपरक होना चाहिए, न कि अमूर्त अथवा अवैयक्तिक । उसमें आसन्नता एवं अंतरंगता के गुण होने चाहिए । कार्लोइन, जो ऐसे पत्र-लेखकों, में अग्रगण्य है, उसके पत्र प्रत्यक्ष, अंतरंग बातों से भरे होते थे । एक अन्य महान् पत्र-लेखन और संभवतः महानतम पत्र-लेखकों में परिगण्य, कीट्स, ऐसे पत्र लिखता था जो अंतरंग भावों तथा मूर्त विवरणों से ओतप्रेत होते थे। अपने भाई जार्ज एवं उसकी पत्नी जो अमेरिका में रहते थे, उनको लिखे कीट्स के पत्र उसके अपने “पारिवारिक जीवन की एक तस्वीर” प्रस्तुत करते हैं । किसी भी पत्र में उस पत्र का सहज अपनापन और जीवन की छोटी-छोटी अंतरंग बातों के मूर्त एवं विशद विवरणों का होना ही उसके सर्वोत्तम गुण माने जा सकते हैं।
गार्डिनर के इस निबन्ध में भी स्वर की एक वैसी ही अंतरंगता मिलती है । अपने विषय को प्रस्तुति वह एक सहज एवं स्वाभाविक शैली में करता है और निबन्ध का नाटकीय प्रारम्भ इस अंतरंग स्वर की पुष्टि करता है ।
On Letter Writing Summary in English
Letter-writing is an art. How to write a good letter is the theme of A.G. Gardiner’s essay “On Letter-Writing”. In his essays we come across a combination of ideas and emotions with beauty and form. His essays are full of “sunshine and mirth, laughter and peace”. This essay is from his collection “Pebbles on the Shore”, first published in 1915.
Gardiner begins his essay by reporting the conversation of two soliders Bill and Sam. Bill is going to join duty at this camp. Sam is seeing him off at a railway station. The author is a fellow-passenger of Bill. Just before the departure of the train Bill and Sam discuss the difficulties of writing a letter. They just do not know what to say in their letters. As the train leaves the author learns from Bill about his varied experience on the different fronts of the War. But Bill is like thousands of other young fellows who in spite of their varied and vast experiences of life, are unable to write about them to any extent in their letters.
According to Gardiner letter-writing is a lost art now and there could be a number of reasons for this. One of them, surely, is the increasing cheapness of the postal charges. The other big factor is the hurry and bustle of modem life when nobody has the leisure to devote to this delicate art. In the past, sending of letter was much more expensive and difficult. It often took weeks and months to reach its destination. The writing as well as the reading of a letter was quite an event in those days. But in course of time postage has become much cheaper and mails much faster. This has almost destroyed the art of letter-writing.
It remains a fact, however, that thousands like Bill and Sam would always need to write good letters. But the secret of letter-writing is its intimacy. The approach must be light and casual. The letter must be personal and not abstract or impersonal. It must have the qualities of immediacy and intimacy. Carlyte, intimate details. Keats, another great letter-writer, and perhaps among the greatest, wrote letters which were vibrant with intimate feelings and vivid details. His letters to his brother George and his wife in America give “a picture of our lives here.” The familiarity of a good letter and its vividness of intimate details are its supreme virtues.
Gardiner’s essay is marked by a similar intimacy of tone. He presents his subject in a style which is easy and natural. The dramatic opening of the essay adds to this intimacy of tone.
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