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A. Work in small groups and discuss the following
1. Have you seen any films recently?
2. Tell the name of any film which you like most. Point out its salient features.
Yes, I have seen a cinema. In our house, we are still children. Our parents do not allow any of us to go see a cinema in the city cinema hall. But on Sunday last I went to see an old picture with my material uncle. The film was ’DusriShadi’. The story was interesting and instructive. It taught the lesson of fidelity to women. It warned men against the evil results of bigamy (TI TTeff and faithlessness. The picture had touching scenes that moved us in tears. The songs were sweet but pathetic. The acting was superb.
B. 1.1. Write ‘T’ for true and ‘F’ for false statement
1. The Cinema commands the respect accorded to any other form of creative expression.
2. The cinema doesn’t combine the cold logic of science.
3. Film production in India is quantitatively second only to Hollywood.
4. India has achieved what other countries have achieved.
5. Indian music is largely improvisational.
B. 1.2. Study the lesson carefully and complete the following sentences on the basis of your reading
1. By the twenties, it had reached of big business.
2. Why our film was not shown
3. The technicians will the tools.
4. The first feature was shot in
5. The music failed in our case.
1. the status
B. 1.3. Answer the following questions very briefly
1. Who has written this essay?
Satyajit Ray has written this essay.
2. Which is the most potent and versatile art form?
The cinema is the most potent and versatile art form
3. Were Indian Aims shown abroad a few decades ago?
No. Indian films were not shown abroad a few decades ago
4. When was the first short produced?
The first short was produced in 1907.
B.2.1 Complete the following sentences on the basis of the unit you have studied
1. Stories have been written on Hollywood Success.
2. It should be realised that the average American film is bad
3. After all, we do these primary tools of film making.
4. The of our films are replete. Visual dissonances.
5. But the truly Indian film should clear of such inconsistencies.
6. There are glimpses of an enlightened approach in a handful of recent films.
6. have been.
B. 2.2. Answer the following questions briefly
1. Have average American films been a bad model? Give one reason.
It depicts a way of life so utterly it variance with our ‘own’.
2. Mention one thing/feature which Indian film needs?
Indian cinema needs more imagination, more integrity and a more intelligent appreciation of the limitations of the medium.
3. Do Indian Him makers possess the primary tools of film making?
Yes, Indian filmmakers possess the primary tools of film making.
C. 1. Long Answer Questions
1. “What our cinema needs above everything else is a style, an idiom, a sort of iconography of cinema, which would be uniquely and recognizably Indian.-” How far this applies to Indian cinema today? Discuss.
According to the author Satyajit Ray, most of the Indian films are replete with such visual dissonances. They look for only material gain. The cinema has become a phenomenon and a potent force in making the seers way-ward and westernized. It has a tendency to uproot our age-old cultural and social ties. Stories Rave been based on Hollywood. Thus Indian cinema ? does not-apply this reality. Our culture is invaded by Hollywood pattern a kind of culture which is alien to our life-style. This should be avoided. Rather Indian film needs to produce the basic aspect of Indian life.
2. Should the cinema be looked upon as a form of creative expression? Give reasons.
The Cinema should not be only looked upon as a form of creative expression. But it should be with the combination, of various measures—the functions of song, music, painting, dramatic action, architecture and a host of other major or minor arts. It should also combine the cold logic of science.
3. Do you think Indian films have certain basic weaknesses? Illustrate your answer, citing examples from the films you have seen.
According to S. Ray. Indian films have certain weaknesses. I find such weaknesses in Indian films today. Indian films lack the truth.
The producers have totally attempted and that too not always with honesty. Recently I have seen the film Three Idiots’ full of. It is humor. But it lacks superb acting, sweet music, drama, and architecture. It also lacks intelligence wit. It is due to the overexposure to violence and sex to impressionable minds.
4. What is the most dominant influence on Indian films?
The most dominant influence on Indian film is that of the American cinema. Stories have also been written based on the Hollywood pattern.
Even where the story has been genuinely Indian. The background music has revealed an irrepressible ornament that hang down for Negros. These are the bad qualities of Indian films.
5. What aspects of American films do our films imitate? Is it justified in our context?
Yes, our films imitate some of the American aspects. Such as story. Stories have been written based on American films. It also tries to depict a way of life like Americans. Indian films also adopt high technical polish and high tone music. It is not justified, Indian films should adopt the aspect of Indian life. Where habit and speech dress and manners, background and foreground blend into a harmonious whole.
C. 2. Group Discussion
Discuss the following topics in groups or pair
1. “Television programs do a lot of harm to students, Give your views either for or against the statement.”
Children spend in watching 17 hours of T.V. every week. In a study conducted by bjamita unnikrishan and Shailaja Bajpai, it was found that children spend almost one year out of ten in watching T.V. than on hobbies and other activities. The research was made in Delhi (Source: The Impact of Advertising on children by Namita unnikrishan and Shailaja Bajpai)*
Children are sitting in front of T.V. for the whole day is merely a passive activity which tends to make kids couch potatoes. In a house where children watch T.V. most of the time, the changes are that they would become T.V. or movie addicts. The interaction between them gets reduced to the selection of channels only. The increasing violence, sex and independent attitude being show on T. V. create a distorted image of children. It has increased crime as youth are aping films. Thus the only disturbing aspect Of T.V. is the gradual degeneration of mental values in society. (films) Today.
2. Films are the mirrors of society.
As literature is the mirror of life so here is the same thing “Films are the mirror of the society”. Literature is an account of this that le;.med men ‘ are referred to as men of letters. It is like a mirror. If gives valuable insights to various facts of life through reading. In films, we see events by watching. It has a great impact on our lives. It is a true mirror- About fifty years ago films were made on Indian Society. Such as McAfier India’ ‘Do Bigha lamin’, ‘Godan’ etc. They were in real sense presented real life.
They were our true mirrors of our society. But cinema plays another role these days. The villain is shown all glorified, rolling in wealth and enjoying girls. He gets wine and women easily. Violence pays, it is shown. Rifles and guns prove them to be brave and full of guts. Whatever our young men see in cinema they try to imbibe (‘91715 far)and copy. Violence gives the kick. These have been an aspect of society. One can see in the mirror, (films) Today.
1. Write a letter to the Director of Doordarshan requesting him to give you an opportunity to participate in the weekly T.V. Programme which interests you very much. Mention why you find yourself suitable for such a program.
20th May, 2010.
The Director Doordarshan,
ETV Bihar & Jharkhand Patna.
Being given to understand that you need a boy actor to participate in your new serial. These days many interesting channels are telecast. Out of these, I like serial for children the most. It is a humourous serial which comes from Monday to Friday. It is my earnest desire to take part in this program. I would request you to kindly consider my application for the same. Besides being a senior student my responsibilities include the school magazine, extracurricular activities, like debate drama and quiz. I am confident of coming up to your expectations and am enclosing my curriculum vita for your kind perusal. Given an opportunity, it will be my sincere endeavor to prove my worth, by putting my heart and soul to professional am deeply committed to. Awaiting a favorable reply.
Yours truly Raman
2. Write your impression of the Hindi film which you have seen recently.
I am not a cinema for but seldonmissa good cinema. On Saturday Last got an opportunity to see a picture. It was an old picture, Rajkapoor’s Teesari Kasam’ The story was written by a famous Hindi story writer. Phanishwar Nath Renu. The story was interesting which dealt with true Indian village life, a Simple village-life of North Bihar. It warned men against the evil practice of prostitution and.fidellty to women, The songs were sweet but melodious. In nutshell the story on the screen was very impressive
D.1. Word Study
D.1. Dictionary Use
Correct the spelling of the following words: varsetile, inavetabt potencial, repelite, phinonomtna.
versatile, inevitable potential, replete, phenomena.
Ex.2. Frame your own sentences using the following words:
creation, potential, solely, queers, gloss, adequate, incredible.
Creation: The girls are wearing the new creations of the style dresses.
Potential: He has not realized his full potential yet.
Solely: We have the sole right of selling the article.
Queer: She has a qeeer way of talking.
Gloss: The material is with good gloss.
Adequate: lam not getting adequate money.
Incredible: The story was incredible.
Ex. 1. Match the words or phrases in Column A with the meanings given in Column B.
|Conferred||art of painting|
|indispensable||process of developing|
|gloss||art and science of building|
|iconography||Smooth bright surface.|
Conferred — given (degree)
Architecture — art and science of building.
Evolution — the process of developing
Gloss — smooth bright surface
Iconography — the art of painting.
Ex.1. Read the lesson carefully and find out five sentences in which phrases have been used. Now use those phrases in sentences of your own.
1. one of the most — Mohan is one of the most intelligent boys in his class.
2. Took up — He took up the photograph of our family.
3. A host of — Mr “X” is a host of mine.
4. After all — After all, he is a man of words.
5. A sort of — He should take a sort of responsibility for the work.
E. Grammar (Adverb Clause of Condition)
Ex. 1. Look at the following sentences
If you get late, you will miss the train.
You will not succeed unless you work hard.
Examples are given above “If you get late” and “unless you work hard” are co-aditions. So this clause is called Adverb Clause’ Or Condition.
Now study the examples given below:-Undef lines are clauses of Condition.
(i) If you make a promise, you must keep it.
(ii) In case it rains, I shall not go out. Adverb clause of Condition starts with if, unless, in case, so long as, provided, provided that, etc.
Ex. 1.1 Make five sentences using unless, provided, in .case, so long as.
unless – I can not open the box unless you give me the key.
Provided – He provided for the entertainment of his visitors.
Incase – Take an umbrella in case it rains.
So long as — As, long as the rain continues, we must stay indoors. Ex.1.2. Fill in the blanks with “should” or “Ought to”
1. We…….help our neighbors.
2. He…..speak the truth.
3. Everybody Board his friends.
4. She read this novel.
5. You….work for the welfare of the country.
2. Ought to
5. Ought to.
Ex. 1.3. Read the following sentences carefully
1. You ought to go immediately.
2. She ought to apologize for her behavior.
3. Do you think I should go?
4. You should write a letter and find out when he is coming.
‘Should’ and ‘ought’ to have some moral connotations, ‘ought’ is stronger and indicates moral obligation whereas ‘should’ indicates a recommendation. It is used in giving or asking for advice.
Now make five sentences each with ‘ought’ and ‘should’.
Ex. 1.4. Read the following sentences carefully
Read the lines of the text from 6 to 15 and frame as many questions as you can, using ‘wh’ words or auxiliaries, one example is done for you. Which was the first short or film produced?
Go your self.
Translate the following sentences into Hindi/your mother tongue.
1. India took up film production surprisingly early.
2. Why were our films not shown abroad?
3. Let us face the truth.
4. The technician will blame the tools.
5. It should be realized that the average American film is a bad model.
6. What does our cinema need?
7. Let him do so.
8. He has only to keep his eyes open.
1. आश्चर्य जनक ढंग से भारत ने बहुत पहले फिल्म का उत्पादन आश्चर्यजनक ढंग से शुरू किया।
2. हमारी फिल्में विदेश में क्यों नहीं दिखायी जाती।
3. हमलोग सत्य का सामना करें।
4. तकनीशियन अपने उपकरणों को दोष देंगे।
5. यह महसूस करना चाहिए कि औसतन अमेरिकन फिल्म बुरा नमूना (उदाहण) है।
6. हमारा चलचित्र जगत क्या चाहता है?
7. उसे ऐसा करने दो।
8. उसे केवल अपनी आँखे खुली रखनी है।
Comprehension Based Questions With Answers
Read the following extracts carefully and answer the questions that follow each
1. One of the most significant phenomena of our time has been the development of the cinema from a turn of the century mechanical toy into the century’s most potent and versatile art form. Today, the cinema commands the respect accorded to any other form of creative expression. It combines in various measures the functions of poetry, music, painting, drama, architecture and a host of other arts, major and minor. It also combines the cold logic of science.
India took up film production surprisingly early. The first short was produced in 1907 and the first feature in 1913. By the twenties, it had reached the status of big business. It is easy to tell the world that film production in India is quantitatively second only to Hollywood; for that is a statistical fact. But can the same be said of its quality? Why are our films not shown abroad? Is it solely because India offers a potential market for her own products? Or are we just plain ashamed of our film?
(i) Name the author of this extract.
(ii) Which is the most potent and versatile art form?
(iii) Does the cinema command respect today?
(Iv) What does cinema combine?
(v) Which word in the passage means ‘happenings’?
(i) Satyajit Ray is the author of this extract.
(ii) The cinema is the most potent and versatile art form.
(iii) Yes, the cinema commands* the respect accorded to any other form of creative expression today.
(iv) The cinema combines the functions of poetry, music, painting, drama, architecture and other arts.
(v) The word‘phenomena’ means‘happenings’.
2. To anyone familiar with the relative standards of the best foreign and Indian films, the answers must come easily. Let qs face the truth. There has yet been no Indian film, which could be acclaimed on all counts. Where other countries have achieved, we have only attempted and that loo not always with honesty.
No doubt this lack of maturity can be attributed to several factors. The producers will tell you about that mysterious entity ‘the mass’, which goes in for this. sort of ‘thing’, the technicians will blame the tools and the director will have much to say about the wonderful things he had in mind but could not achieve because of ‘the conditions’.
(i) Name the piece from which this extract has been taken.
(ii) What, according to the author, is the truth about the quality of Indian films?
(iii) What do the producers blame for the lack of maturity of Indian films?
(iv) What do the technicians blame for the weaknesses of Indian films?
(v) What does the word ‘mysterious ’ mean?
(i) This extract has been taken from the piece ‘What is Wrong with Indian Films’.
(ii) According to the author, the truth about the quality of Indian films is that no Indian film has been acclaimed on all counts.
(iii) The producers blame ‘the mass’ for the lack of maturity of Indian films.
(iv) The technicians blame the tools for the weaknesses of Indian films.
(v) The word‘mysterious’ means‘impossible to understand’.
3. Almost every passing phase of the American cinema has had its repercussion oh the Indian film. Stories have been written based on Holly-wood successes and the cliches preserved with care. Even where the story has been a genuinely Indian one, the background music has revealed an irrepressible penchant for the jazzidiom.
It should be realised that the average American films is a bad model, if only because it depicts a way of life so utterly at variance with our own. , Moreover, the high technical polish, which is the hallmark of the standard Hollywood product, would be impossible to achieve tinder existing Indian Conditions, What the Indian cinema needs today is not more gloss, but more imagination, more integrity, and a more intelligent appreciation of the limitations of the medium
(i) What is the influence of American films on Indian Cinema?
(ii) What is the idea of the writer about American film?
(iii) What is the symbol of the standard of Hollywood’s films?
(iv) What does the Indian camera need today?
(i) The American cinema has had its repercussions on Indian films such as stories, they are based on Hollywood Successes.
(ii) The writer thinks that the American Cinema is a bad model.
(iii) The high technical polish is the hallmark df the standard of Hollywood product.
(iv) The Indian camera needs today is not more gross, but more imagination, more integrity, and a more intelligent appreciation of
the limitations of the medium.
4. After all, we do posses the primary tools of filmmaking. The com¬- plaint of the technicians notwithstanding, mechanical devices such as the v crane shot and the process shot are useful, but by no means indispensable. In fact, what tools we have been used on occasion with real intelligence. What our.cinema needs above everything else is a style, an idiom, a sort of iconography of cinema, which would be uniquely and recognisably Indian. The majority of our films are replete with such ‘visual dissonances’.
But the truly Indian film should steer clear of such inconsistencies and look for its material in the more basic aspects of Indian life, where habit and speech, dress and manners, background and foreground, blend into a harmonious whole. It is only in a drastic simplification of style and content that hope for the Indian cinema resides. At present, it would appear that nearly all the prevailing practices go against such as simplification.
(i) What does Indian cinema need?
(ii) What types of films?
(iii) What types of material does Indian cinema need?
(iv) What do you mean by ‘Simplification?’
(i) Indian cinema needs a style, an idiom a sort of iconography of cinema which would be uniquely and recognizably Indian.
(ii) The majority of our films are depleted with such ‘visual dissonances’.
(iii) In Indian enema, there should be material in the more basic aspect of Indian life. Where habit and speech, dress and manners background and foreground bland into a harmonious way.
(iv) It means not much decorated or ornamented. Here concerning cinema, it should simply be produced.
5. Starting a production without adequate planning, sometimes even without a shooting script, a penchant for convolutions of plot and counterplot rather than the strong, simple unidirectional narrative: the practice of sandwiching musical numbers in the most unlyrical situations, the habit of shooting indoors in a country which is all landscape, and at a time when all other countries are turning to the documentary for inspiration all these stands in the way of the evolution of a distinctive style.
There have been rare glimpses of an enlightened approach in a handful of recent films. IPTA’s Dharti-Ke-Lal is an instance of a strong simple theme put over with style, honesty, and technical competence. Shankar’s Kalpana, an inimitable and highly individual experiment, shows a grasp of filmic movement, and a respect for tradition.
The raw material of the cinema is life itself, it is incredible that country which has inspired so much painting and music and poetry shout(j fail to move the filmmaker. He has only to keep his eyes open, and his ears7..i him do so.
(i) How should a film production be made?
(ii) Which films are mentioned here?
(iii) What is the raw material of a cinema?
(iv) find the word from the passage, which means ‘inland scenery’.
(i) Film production is made with adequate planning.
(ii) The film is ‘Dharti-ke-Lal’.
(iii) The raw material of the cinema is life itself.
(iv) The word is, landscopee.
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