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A. Work in a small groups and pairs and discuss the following
Do you celebrate festivals?
Yes, I celebrate festivals.
Which festival you enjoy most?
I enjoy the Deepawali festival most.
How do you celebrate?
Yes, I celebrate the festival with my family and friends’
In which season is it celebrated?
It is celebrated in autumn in the last week of October or the first weak of November, Kartik (Hindi months) every year.
What do you do when enjoying with your friends?
I enjoy the festival with my friends by decorating, exploding crackers and lighting my house. We eat together a variety of sweets and other delicious items with our friend, relation and family members
B. 1. Answer the following questions briefly
Which festival was referred by the writer?
The writer had referred “Easter” festival to be celebrated on the anniversary of the “Ressurection of Jesus Christ”.
Why sledging was over?
Sledging was over, because the snow had stopped to fall and began to melt.
Why there was water running in streams down the village street?
Water was running in streams down the village street because of the snow started melting.
Where do two little girls meet?
Two little girls meet in a lane between two homesteads.
Are they of same age?
No, they are not of the same age.
Why did Akoulaya try to check Malasha?
Akoulya checked Malasha, because her mother will scold to see her with wet shoes and stockings.
What advice did Akoulaya offer?
Akoulaya advised her to take off her shoes and stockings otherwise it will be spoiled in the water of the pool. .
B.2. Say True (T) or False (F) to the following statements
1. Akoulaya and Malasha take off their shoes and stockings.
2. They do not walk towards each other in the puddle.
3. Malasha assures Akoulya that water is deep.
4. Malasha splashes water.
5. Akoulaya ran to strike Malasha.
6. Malasha purposely splashes water.
1. – T
2. – F
3. – T
4. – T
5. – T
6. – T
B.3. Fill up the blanks
They all went………………quarelling, till one gave another………., and the affair had very………………come to blows, when Akoulya’s old grandmother, stepping…………………. among them, tried to them. What are you thinking of friends? Is it right to……………………so? On a day…………………..this, too! It is a time rejoicing and not for such folly ……………this.
They all went on quarellig, till one gave another a push, and the affair had very nearly come to blows, when Akulya’s old grandmother, stepping in among them, tried to calm them. “What are you thinking of, friends? Is it right to behave so? On a day like this, too! It is a time for rejoicing and not for such folly as this.”
B.3.2. Answer the following questions briefly
Why Akoulaya started shouting at Malasha?
Akoulya started shouting at malasha, because she held her responsible for causing stain of mud over, her (Akoulya) ffock, eyes and nose.
Why Akoulya’s mother seized Malasha?
Akoulya’s mother seized Malasha to beat her, on the complaint lodged by her daughter against Malasha.
What happens when malasha’s mother came out after hearing herhowl?
When Malasha’s mother came out she saw her daughter beaten by Akoulya’s mother, she started rebuking her neighbour.
Why no one listening?
As everyone was shouting and quarrelling, so no one was listening to anybody.
Did the old woman succeed in her efforts?
No, the old woman did not succeed in her efforts.
What did Akoulaya do while other women were abusing?
Akoulya cleaned the mud over her ffock and went back to the small pool of water, at the time when other women were abusing each other. She began to scraping away the land in front of the puddle to make a channel through which the water could spread over the street where men were fighting.
What the two girls do when men started fighting?
When men began to fight both of the two girls started scraping away .the land in front of the small pool of water to make a channel through which the water could run out in the street.
Were they too fighting?
They (the two girls) were not fighting at that time.
C.A. Long Type Questions with Answers
Describe why the two girls were dressed in new cloths and showing their finery to each other?
The two girls were dressed in new cloths and showing their impressive garments and jewellery to each other. It was Easter festival. The reason behind the demonstration of their dress and costumes was to show that they had just come from chruch. Another reason might be to show that they were wearing magnificent cloths and jewellery.
Why did they step into the puddle and what makes them fight?
The two girls were playing. Mean while the idea, of playing in the water of a small pool and to spread water in fun, came in their mind. So they stepped into the pool. The reason behind the fight between those two girls’ was also funny. Malasha suddenly plumped down her foot in the water of the pool. It was so sudden and heavy that the water spread and splashed right on Akoulya’s frock, eyes and nose. It made her frock dirty and coated with mud. Akoula thought that Malasha had done it intentionally, in order to make her dress dirty. So, she became angry and ran after Malasha to hit her forcefully. Thus, they fought for their own reasons, forming a prejuidiced opinion about one another.
What did the old woman mean by “Is it right to behave so? on a day like this too!”
The old woman saw a crowd collected in the street and all went on quarelling. Everyone was shouting and no one was listening to others. She thought that the situation might take an ugly and disasterous turn. So she tried to make it peaceful. Moreover it was the day of “Easter festival”. As such coming to them she expressed her surprise over their behaviour. She advised them not to create such nuisance and to be peaceful. Thus her statement in this connection, “Is it right to behave so? on a day like this too !” throws light on her painful sentiments over such behaviour, because (i) Such inhuman and undesirable act was wrong and (ii) it was the auspicious day to celebrate “Easter” festival.
Why writer calls two little girls “Dear little souls’
The two little girls Akoulya and Malasha indulge in quarell while playing in a puddle Akoulya wants to beat malasha for her wrong act. Malasha being frightened thinks to run to her house. Just then Akoulya’s mother happens to come. Seeing Akoulya’s frock dirty by sprinkles of mud and knowing the fact she beats Malasha. People gather from both the sides, start shouting without listning to other. Akoulya’s old grandmother accidentally comes to that place and tries to pacify them but does not succeed.
All of a sudden the situation takes a happy turn. Akoulya removes the dirty mud on her frock herself and goes back to the puddle. She begins to scrap away the earth in front of the puddle to make a channel, so that water may run into the street where the old woman is trying to pacify the crowd. Malasha also joins her (Akoulya) forgetting all her dispute. Seeing this the old lady becomes pleased and calls them, “Dear little Souls”. Therefore writer also calls them, “Dear little souls” to see their innocence. He is highly influenced to see their spirit of “Forget and forgive”.
Explain, “Except Ye turn, and become as little children Ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven.”
The lesson teaches us that we should not indulge in unnecessary dispute and lead a peaceful life. At the same time we should be reasonable in our actions as happened in the affairs of Akoulya and Malasha. These two little girls have developed some mis-understanding for one another. It takes an ugly turn. There held hot discussion. People from both sides collected in the street. Ever, one is shouting without listening to others. They are almost beginning right. But soon after, those two girls patch up their misunderstanding and become friends again. They begin to play again as nothing has happened. So they are wiser than those persons who have gathered there.
It shows how innocent and good at heart they are. They have cited the example of “forget and forgive”. It is a message to the older people. They too should learn lesson from them. Therefore the writer explain it in this way that one who would act accordingly would be a wise man. He can only enter in the kingdom of heaven. It means that we should not preserve malice in our hearts. Those two little l girls have proved, that he who believes in co-existence and forgive others for their fault is wise in real sense and may be able to enter into the kingom of
Why in the crowd everyone is shouting and no one is listening?
When two persons or groups indulge in some dispute or some controversial issues, they do not admit their own fault and accuse others. They try to pacify others with their own arguments without listenning to them. It is but human nature. As such, the same thing happens in the matter as referred. When Akoulya and Malasha engage in quarrelsome affairs, people assembled from both the sides in the street start shouting. No one listen to others. They do not accept their.fault and accuse their opponants. That is why everyone is shouting and no one is listening.
D. Group Discussion
1. Is it proper to fight on trivial issues like sitting in first row? Discuss with your friend.
No, it is not proper to fight on trivial issue like sitting in first ‘ row. If anyone is sitting in the first row on watching some programme. Suddenly he begins to fight with someone who is sitting beside him. The fighting will disturb the andience what a nasty scene they will present! They should be ashamed of themselves. Fighting for fuss is useless. It creates a surcharged atmosphere. They would have caused immene damage to themselves and to the public by their wrangle, which could have but been easily resolved by a mere ’sorry’, or perhaps some punishment by the people. This could have been a more civilised . and decent way to behave.
2. Discipline and love for mankind make one’s character strong.
Love for mankind and discipline, these are virtues of human’s character. It is this character which gives him a ‘reputation’ by which he is known and recognised. Love for man and be kind and disciplined are essential prerequisite for good character. This could be only possible if had, noble or evil. Education should be such that one imbibes good virtues like honesty, love for humanity and trains to live a disciplined life. These are attributes that are important for our character. A man without these qualities of head and heart is but a savage. Moral instructions starts very early in life before the child starts going to school. The parents are best equipped to impart him his moral education rather than to quarrel.
D. Word study
E. 1. Phrasal verves: phrasal verb consist of two words (verb+adverb particle), which carries a single meaning and this meaning is not the sum total of the two words.
Ex. Give up, put out, break down are phrasal verbs.
Pick out phrasal verbs used in the lesson and use them in sentence of your own.
Give up — Please give up your bad habits.
Put out — Put out the light, please.
Break down — His health broke down last summer.
Take off — Take off your clothes.
Comes up — The water came up to my knee.
Come out — The truth has come out.
Look at — She is looking at a picture.
E. Grammar Activities
F. 1. One may report the words of a speaker in two different ways:
1. May quote the actual words of speaker (direct speech).
2. Or report what a speaker said without quoting his exact words is (indirect speech).
Look at the following sentences in your lesson
‘Don’t go in so, Malasha said she.
She said, ‘Your mother will scold you.
These are written within inverted coma to mark the exact words of the speaker.
Now look at following sentences
She advised Malasha not to go in that way.
She warned her that her mother would scold her.
In reporting statements, commands and requests of direct speech in indirect speech, few changes are required
Now pick out sentences from the lesson written in Direct speech and change them into indirect speech.
(i) “Don’t go inso, Malasha”, said she,” your mother will scold you. I will take oft my shoes and stockings, and you take off yours”
(ii) “It is deep, Akoulya, I’am afraid!”
(iii) “come on’ .replied the other. Don’t be frightened, it won’t get any deeper.
(iv) “Mind, Malasha, don’t splash, walk carefully!”
(v) “You naughty dirty girl, what have you been doing?”
Indirect speech of the sentence written above
(i) She forbade Malasha to go in. So her mother would scold her. She would take off her shoes and stockings and she (Malasha) must take off hers.
(ii) Malasha said that it was deep so she was afraid.
(iii) The other replied and called her then she forbade her not to be frightened it would not get any deeper.
(iv) Akoulya reminded Malasha not to splash and further she advised to walk carefully. ‘
(v) She rebuked Malasha as naughty and dirty girl and further asked what she had been doing.
Note: Some examples have been left. Do them yourself.
Ex.2. Write extended form of the<following: one is done for you:
Won’t Don’t didn’t
hand’t hasn’t haven’t
Shouldn’t shan’t aren’t
wouldn’t weren’t isn’t
won’t — will not
Don’t — donot
Didn’t — did not
Hadn’t — had not
Hasn’t — has not
Haven’t— have not
shouldn’t— shduld not
Shan’t — shall not
Aren’t — are not
wouldn’t— would not
weren’t— were not
Isn’t — isnot
1. Recall any past event related to your friend similar to this story? Write in 200 words.
2. Report the story to your friend in indirect speech.
It was the month of April last year. The sun was going down. Somehow the weather was cool; There was flow of vehicles on the road. 1 had to wait for quite some time at the traffic. In the meantime 1 saw a friend of mine, heo saw too. He cames towards me. We mest happily. He asked me my mobile, and rang another friend By chance a man came in hurry and snatched mobile from his hands. He rushed towards him and caught him and recovered my mobile. I told him to hand over the man to the police. But he did not give attention to my words. The talk took a turn for the worse. People gathered and forbade us to quarrel. la the midst of crowd two men began to quarrel. They were quarelling over our talk. Soon we realized and began to talk happily forgetting all what happened before.
See Summary of the lesson.
Translate the passage into Hindi:
They would not listen to the old lady, and nearly knocked her off her feet. And she would not have been able quite crowd, if it had not been for Akoulya and Malasha themselves. While the women were abusing each other, Akoulya had wiped the mud off her frock, and gone back to the puddle. She took a stone and began scraping away the earth in front of the puddle make a channel through which the water could run out into the street.
उनलोगों ने उस बूढी महिला की बातों को नहीं सुना (बातों पर गौर नहीं किया), और उसे आघात पहुँचाकर लगभग उसको अपने पैरों पर गिरा दिया तथा वह भीड़ को शान्त नहीं करा सकी; यदि यह ऑकोल्या और मलाशा, उन दोनों के लिए नहीं होता। जब वे औरतें – एक दूसरे के प्रति अपशब्द (बुरे भले शब्द) का व्यवहार कर रही थीं, ऑकोल्या ने अपनी फ्रॉक में लगी हुई कीचड़ को पोंछ दिया तथा तालाब (छिछली पोखरी) में पुनः वापस चली गयी। उसने एक पत्थर उठा लिया और तालाब के सामने की जमीन को कुरेदना (काटना) प्रारम्भ किया। एक जलमार्ग (नाली) बनाने के लिए जिससे होकर पानी गली में बह सके ।
Comprehension Based Questions With Answers
Read the following extracts carefully and answer the questions that follow each
1. Two little girls from different houses happened to meet in a lane between two homesteads, where the dirty water after running through the farm-yards had formed a large p.uddle. One girl was very small, the other a little bigger. Their mothers had dressed them both in new frocks. The little one wore a blue frock the other a yellow print, and both had red kerchiefs on their heads.
They had just come from church when they met,and first they showed each other their finery, and then they began to play. Soon the fancy took them to splash about in the water, and the smaller one was going to step into the puddle, shoes and all, when the elder checked her ’Don’t go in so, Malasha, ’said she, ’your mother will scold you. I will take off my shoes and stockings, and you take off yours.
(i) When was the time?
(ii) From where were the two girls returning?
(iii) What type of clothes were they wearing?
(iv) Who was Malasha?
(i) It was an early easter. Slediging was only just over.
(ii) The two girls were returning from Church.
(iii) They wore new frocks.
(iv) Malasha was the little girl.
2. She had hardly said this when Malasha plumped down her foot so that the water splashed right on to Akoulya’s frock. The frock was splashed, and so were Akoulya’s eyes and nose. When she saw the stains on her frock, she was angry and ran after malasha to strike her. Malasha was frightened, and seeing that she had got herself into trouble, she scrambled out of the puddle, and prepared to run home.
Just, then Akoulya’s mother happened to be passing, and seeing that her daughter’s skirt was splashed, and her sleeves – dirty, she said “You naughty, dirty girl, what have you been doing? ’Malasha did it on purpose,’ replied the girl. At this Akoulya’s mother seized malasha, and struck her on the back of her neck. Malasha began to howl so that she could be heard all down the street. Her mother came out.
(i) Who is the author of this extract?
(ii) Who splashed water on Akoulya’s frock?
(iii) Why did Akoulya run after Malasha to strike her?
(iv) Why was Akoulya’s mother angry?
(v) Make adjectives from the following names
(i) trouble and (ii) home
(i) Leo Tolstoy is the author of this extract.
(ii) Malasha splashed water on Akoulya’s frock.
(iii) Akoulya ran after Malasha to strike her because the latter had splashed her frock.
(iv) Akoulya’s mother was angry because her daughter’s frock was dirty and stained.
(i) troublesome and (ii) homely
3. ‘What are you beating my girl for?’ said she; and began scolding her neighbour. One word led to another and they had an angry quarrel. The men came out and a crowd collected in the street everyone shouting arid no one listening. They all went on quarrelling, till, one gave another a push, and the affair had very nearly come to blows, when Akoulya’s old grandmother, step¬ping in among them, tried to calm them. ‘What are you thinking of,friends? Is it right to behave so? on a day like this, too! It is a time for rejoicing, and not for such folly as this.”
(i) Name the piece from which this extract has been taken.
(ii) Who is referred to as ‘she’ in this passage?
(iii) Why was no one listening?
(iv) What did Akoulya’s grandmother do?
(v) Make nouns from the following verbs
(i) collect and (ii) behave
(i) This extract has been taken from the piece ‘Little Girls Wiser than Man’.
(ii) Malasha’s mother is referred to as ‘she’ in this passage.
(iii) No one was listening because the men and women were quarrelling and shouting.
(iv) Akoulya’s grandmother stepped in among them and tried to calm them. She told them that it was not proper to quarrel.
(v) (i) collection and (ii) behaviour.
4. They would not listen to the old woman and nearly knocked her off her feet. And she would not have been able to quiet the crowd, if it had not been for Akoulya and riialasha themselves. While the women were abusing each other, Akoulya had wiped the mud off her frock, and gone back to the puddle. She took a stone and began scraping away the earth in front of the puddle to make a channel through which the water could run out into the street.
Presently Malasha joined her, and with a chip of wood helped her dig the channel. Just as the men were beginning to fight, the water from the little girls’ channel ran streaming into the street towards the very place where the old woman was trying to pacify the men. The girls followed it; one turning each side of the little stream.
(i) How were they fighting?
(ii) While the women were quarrelling; what did the two girls do?
(iii) How did Malasha help Akoulya?
(iv) find out the word from the passage which means: ‘moving mass of liquid’
(i) They were knocked by each other.
(ii) While the women were abusing each other, Akoulya had wiped the mud off her frock and gone back to the puddle to make a channel. Malasha joined her.
(iii) Malasha joined her and with a chip of wood helped her dig the channel.
5. Highly delighted, and watching the chip float along on their stream, the little girls ran straight into the group of men; and the old woman, seeing them, said to the men: Are you not ashamed of yourselves? To go fighting on account of these lassies, when they themselves have forgotten all about it, and are playing happily together. Dear little souls! They are wiser than you!’ The men looked at the little girls, and were ashamed, and, laughing at themselves, went back each to his own home. ‘Except ye turn, and become as little children, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven.’
(i) How happy were the girls?
(ii) Who said it,” Are you not ashamed of yourselves?
(iii) Who were wiser than man?
(iv) Who abide in the kingdom of heaven?
(i) Highly delighted and watching the chip float on their stream the little girl ran straight into the group of men.
(ii) Akoulya’s grandmother said it.
(iii) Little girls were wiser than man.
(iv) Little girls abide in the kingdom of heaven.
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