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Bihar Board Class 10 English Grammar Clauses
Sentence, Phrase and Clause
1. Sentence: शब्दों के किसी ऐसे समूह को वाक्य (Sentence) कहा जाता है जो अर्थ को पूर्ण रूप से स्पष्ट करता हो; जैसे-
- He is my best friend.
- Boys are going to school.
- He went home yesterday.
- God helps those who help themselves.
ऊपर दिया गया प्रत्येक शब्द-समूह किसी पूर्ण अर्थ को स्पष्ट करता है। इस प्रकार के शब्द-समूह को ही वाक्य (Sentence) कहा जाता है।
2. Phrase: शब्दों के किसी ऐसे समूह को वाक्यांश (phrase) कहा जाता है, जिससे कुछ अर्थ तो निकलता हो किन्तु पूर्ण अर्थ स्पष्ट नहीं होता हो; जैसे-
- on the table.
- after an hour.
- in the morning..
- with my brother.
3. Clause: ऐसे शब्द समूह को Clause (उप-वाक्य अथवा पद) कहा जाता है जो किसी पूर्ण वाक्य का अंश हो तथा जिसका अपना अलग Subject और Predicate हो।
4. Clause के विचार से वाक्य तीन प्रकार के होते हैं-
- Simple Sentence (सरल वाक्य)
- Compound Sentence (संयुक्त वाक्य)
- Complex Sentence (मिश्रित वाक्य)
1. Simple Sentence जिस वाक्य का केवल एक ही Clause हो उसे Simple Sentence कहा जाता है; जैसे-
- The boy broke his leg.
- She washed her clothes.
2. Compound Sentence-जिस वाक्य में दो या दो से अधिक अनाश्रित Clauses हों, उसे Compound Sentence कहा जाता है, उदाहरण के रूप में
- Sita saw Ram and she became happy.
- You must work hard or you will fail.
- Many were called, but few were chosen.
Compound Sentence of No Clause ont Co-ordinate clause कहा जाता है।
3. Complex Sentence (मिश्रित वाक्य) जिस वाक्य में एक मुख्य-वाक्य (Principal Clause) हो तथा एक या एक से अधिक आश्रित वाक्य (Subordinate Clauses) हों, उसे Complex Sentence कहा जाता है;
Principal Clause को Main Clause भी कहा जाता है।
Subordinate Clause को Dependent Clause भी कहा जाता है।
- Principal Clause
- Subordinate Clause
1. Principal Clause – मिश्रित वाक्य का वह खण्ड जो मुख्य Subject और मुख्य Predicate से बना हो, उसे Principal Clause कहा जाता है।
2. Subordinate Clause – मिश्रित वाक्य का वह खण्ड जिसका अर्थ – Principal Clause पर आश्रित हो, उसे Subordinate Clause कहा जाता है।
Kinds of Subordinate Clauses
Subordinate Clauses तीन प्रकार के होते हैं-
- Noun Clause
- Adjective Clause
- Adverb Clause.
1. Noun Clause: किसी Complex Sentence में जो पद एक संज्ञा (Noun) का कार्य कर रहां हो, उसे Noun Clause कहा जाता है। निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में तिरछे छपे हुए शब्द-समूह Noun Clause बनाते हैं:-
- That John is a thief was not known to me.
- He was told that he must not be late again.
- Learning that my brother had received serious injuries, I left for Shimla.
- I was shocked to hear that his only son had died.
- Listen to what the teacher says.
- The fact is that he knows nothing.
- It is true that he risked his own life to save the child.
- I am not sure who will teach you engligh
2. Adjective Clause: किसी Complex Sentence में जो पद किसी विशेषण (Adjective) का कार्य कर रहा हो, उसे Adjective Clause कहा जाता है।
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में तिरछे छपे हुए शब्द-समूह Adjective Clause बनाते है:
- The Company that supplied goods has failed.
- The house where my brother lives have been sold.
3. Adverb Clause: किसी Complex Sentence में जो पद किसी क्रिया-विशेषण (Adverb) का कार्य कर रहा हो, उसे Adverb Clause कहा जाता है।
निम्नलिखित वाक्य में तिरछे छपे हुए शब्द-समूह Adverb Clause बनाते हैं:
- When the cat is away, the mice will play.
- Where there is a will, there is a way.
- You should act as the doctor advises you.
- He talks as if he were mad.
- As far as I know, Ram Lal is not to blame.
- As you are over fourteen, you will have to pay full fare.
- I work hard so that I may pass.
Important Questions with Answers
Complete the following sentences using suitable clauses.
- He that ________ needs fear no fall.
- All that ________ is not gold.
- He that is down needed fear no fall.
- All that glitters is not gold.
- It was certain that ________
- It is sure that ________
- It was certain that the man would die.
- It is sure that he will succeed.
- It is evident that ________
- that ________ is was sure.
- It is evident that the rain will fall today.
- That the man would die was certain.
- It was very unfortunate that ________
- God help those who ________
- It was very unfortunate that you were taken ill.
- Gold helps those who help themselves.
- I do not know what ________
- This is the boy whom ________
- I do not know what you have done.
- This is a boy whom I met yesterday.
- I do not know where ________
- I have no belief in ________
- I do not know where he lives.
- I have no belief in what he says.
- Let me see what ________
- The question is how ________
- Let me see what happens.
- The question is how people behave.
- Strike the iron while ________
- I went to see him because ________
- Strike the iron while it is hot.
- I went to see him because he was seriously ill.
- Here he lives where ________
- Go where ________
- Here he lives where he likes.
- Go where you like.
- Go to bed early so that ________
- Better to rain in hell than ________
- Go to bed early so that you may rise early.
- Better to rain in hell than serve in heaven.
- Radha is not so beautiful as ________
- Even if the night is dark, he will ________
- Radha is not so beautiful as Sita.
- Even if the night is dark, he will start.
- The sun will rise so long as ________
- None can harm you as long as ________
- The sun will rise so long as the world lasts.
- None can harm you as long as you are good.
- Until you remain idle, you ________
- Until you are dutiful you ________
- Until you remain idle you will get no success.
- Until you are dutiful you will be praised.
- You are afraid you ________
- Unless you do not labour hard you ________
- You are afraid you will fail.
- Unless you do not labour hard you will not get success.
- You can not mend yourself unless ________
- I agree to what ________
- You can not mend yourself unless you are not penalized.
- I agree with what you say
- He writes letter than ________
- He is as good as ________
- He writes a letter than he speaks.
- He is as good as you are.
- Nothing is better than ________
- He acted as if ________
- Nothing is a letter than good health.
- He acted as if he were a mad man.
- Work hard otherwise ________
- Obey you teacher otherwise ________
- Work hard otherwise, you will fail.
- Obey your teacher otherwise, you will be punished.
- I can not attend my classes because ________
- I know, that you ________
- I can not attend my clause because I am ill.
- I know that you are a good friend.
- I know that ________
- Tell me what ________
- I know that the earth is round.
- Tell me what you have done.
Complete the following using the clauses given in the box:
What my governess taught me;
that you can at a young age;
When you are young.
________ you remember everything forever. Now that I am old, I forget everything in a few seconds, but I still cannot get on without remembering ________ I advise you to cram in all.
When you are young you remember everything forever. Now that I am old, I forget everything in a few seconds, but I still cannot get on without remembering what my governess taught me. I advise you to cram in all that you can at a young age.
Complete the following using the clauses given in the box.
that she should hide;
how to escape from them;
where he should go;
The city was torn with riots. The old man did not know the place ________ along with his daughter. Since the house was surrounded by rioters he even did not know ________ He, therefore, told his daughter ________ somewhere.
The city was torn with riots. The old man did not know the place where he should go along with his daughter Since the house was surrounded by rioters, he even did not know how to escape from them, He, therefore, told his daughter that she should hide somewhere.
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