BSEB Bihar Board Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources Textbook Questions and Answers.
Bihar Board Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources
Bihar Board Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources InText Questions and Answers
In-text Questions (Page 269)
What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment friendly?
The changes to become more environment friendly are:
- Reduce the use of fossil fuels.
- Repairing the water taps if leakage is seen.
- Planting trees.
- No use of plastic bags.
- Reuse the empty bottles of pickles and jams.
- Recycle the recyclable materials for use.
What would be the advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims?
Advantages for exploiting resources for short-term aims are:
- Increase profits without any accountability.
- Fulfil the needs of the present generation.
How would these advantages differ from the advantages of using a long-term perspective in managing our resources?
A long-term perspective would be more advantageous as it will ensure the fulfilment of needs of the present generation and conserve the resources for the benefit of the future generations too.
This approach will also be helpful in avoiding overexploitation of resources for short term gains.
Why do you think there should be equitable distribution of resources? What forces would be working against an equitable distribution of our resources?
Equitable distribution of resources is necessary so that benefits are also enjoyed by the poor people instead of being in hands of the rich and powerful people.
The social structure, the monetary gap and the social status work against equitable distribution of resources between the poor and the rich and powerful people.
In-text Questions (Page 273)
Why should we conserve forest and wildlife?
- To preserve the biodiversity as its loss disturbs the ecological stability.
- Forest trees prevent floods and soil erosion.
- Various benefits like fuelwood, fruits, medicines, etc. are obtained by people from forests.
Suggest some approaches towards the conservation of forests.
- Felling of trees indiscriminately should be banned.
- Creating awareness among people for forest conservation.
- Involving local people in forest conservation as was done in Arabari forests of West Bengal.
- Banning hunting of wild animals to protect wildlife.
- Encouraging planting more trees.
In-text Questions (Page 276)
Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting/management in your region.
The traditional systems of water harvesting are ponds, tanks, lakes and other water reservoirs which were called differently based on the regions. Example: Kulhs in Himachal Pradesh, Khadins, tanks and Nadis in Rajasthan, Kattas in Karnataka, etc. Baoli were used in Delhi region to store water in olden days.
Compare the above system with the probable systems in hilly/mountainous areas or plains or plateau regions.
In hilly areas like Himachal Pradesh, the local system of canal irrigation called kulhs were developed in which water flowing in the streams was diverted to man-made channels. These channels took water to different villages down the hillside.
In level terrains like plains or plateau, crescent shaped earthen embankments or straight concrete and rubble ‘check dams’ are built to store running water.
Find out the source of water in your region/locality. Is water from this source available to all people living in that area?
Water drawn from the rivers or tubewells is supplied by government through pipes to the homes of people in our locality. Only the areas approved by the local municipal bodies get the supply of water in this way.
Bihar Board Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources Textbook Questions and Answers
What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment-friendly?
The following of 3 R’s is necessary to be environment-friendly in home, which are:
Reduce: Use less and not to waste any resource. For example, Water and electricity.
Recycle: Segregate the waste that can be recycled and make required things by using them. For example, Paper and plastic bottles.
Reuse: Use the things again and again. For example, Bottles of jams and pickles, plastic carry bags.
Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment friendly?
- Switch off the lights and fans when not necessary.
- Plant trees in the school campus.
- Recycle waste paper.
- Segregate wastes into biodegradable and non-biodegradable and put them in separate dustbins.
We saw in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?
The stakeholders in the conservation of forests are:
- Local People: Those who are dependent on forests for their survival.
- Forest Department: Government who owns the land and controls resources
- Industrialists: Those who use various forests
- Wildlife enthusiasts: Those who want to conserve nature.
I am of the opinion that the local people should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce as they never overexploit the forest resources. They utilise them as per their needs and try to replenish them too. Their efforts can help in fulfilling and balancing the needs of the other three stakeholders in the conservation of forests.
How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of
(a) forests and wildlife, (b) water resources and (c) coal and petroleum?
As an individual we can contribute or make a difference to the management of
(a) Forests and wildlife: By creating awareness among people for their conservation and planting more and more trees.
(b) Water resources: By turning off tap when not in use, repair leaking taps, use treated water for washing cars.
(c) Coal and petroleum: By using renewable sources of energy like solar energy, switching over to cleaner fuels like CNG, using solar heaters, using LED lights, less use of private vehicles.
What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?
As an individual we can reduce our consumption of the various natural resources by
- Taking a bus, public transport or walking/cycling instead of a private vehicle.
- Using LED bulbs in homes instead of normal bulbs.
- Taking the stairs instead of lift.
- Wearing an extra sweater on cold days instead of burning fossil fuels for warmth.
List five things you have done over the last one week to
(a) Conserve our natural resources.
(b) Increase the pressure on our natural resources.
(a) Five things done to conserve our natural resources are:
- Switched off fans when not in use.
- Changed the lights in home to LED bulbs.
- Used public transport.
- Recycled waste paper.
- Reused the empty jam bottles to store kitchen grocery.
(b) Five things done to increase pressure on our natural resources are:
- Kept the lights switched on unnecessarily.
- Washed the car with water fit for drinking.
- Used car to travel even for short distances.
- Burnt paper wastes.
- Threw away old envelopes which could have been recycled.
On the basis of the issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your life-style in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources?
The changes which I would incorporate in my life-style to move towards a sustainable use of our resources will be:
- Conserve water and electricity.
- Recycle the waste paper, plastic polybags, etc.
- Do water harvesting to recharge ground water level.
- Minimise use of fossil fuels and switch over to solar energy.
- Use public transport for travel instead of private vehicle.
Bihar Board Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources Textbook Activities
Activity 16.1 (Textbook page 266)
Euro norms refer to the permissible emission levels from both petrol and diesel vehicles, which have been implemented in Europe. However in India, the government has adopted the Euro norms for available fuel quality and the method of testing. Euro norms have been given a name of Bharat-I, Bharat-IV, etc. Refer-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_emission_standards https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_credit
The ways in which you can reduce the carbon emission levels are:
(i) Use public transport (ii) Conserve energy (iii) Manage resources in a better way (iv) Conservation of nature and natural resources (v) Creating awareness among people regarding need of conservation (vi) Plant more trees (vii) Reduce the carbon emissions from industries (viii) Strictly adhere to the pollution under control norms (ix) Use devices in industries to reduce carbon emissions (x) Proper planning and switching over to sources that emit less carbon
Activity 16.2 (Textbook page 266)
Refer-http://www.findouter.com/Asia/India/Science and Social Science/Environment/Environmental Organisations
We can contribute towards the same cause by actively participating in the activities of such organisations and creating awareness among the people of our locality and society.
Activity 16.3 (Textbook page 268)
Yes, the pollution levels of water can be indicated by the levels of pH of the water body. However, certain other variables like the Coliform count, Total Dissolved Solids and Conductivity of Suspended sediment etc. can supplement the data regarding the levels of pollution of the water.
Activity 16.4 (Textbook page 268)
The changes one would observe are that
- Forests cleared to use the land for agricultural fields.
- New houses have been constructed in place of mud huts.
- The non-metalled roads have replaced the metalled roads.
The destruction of forests to make agricultural fields should be minimised.
Activity 16.5 (Textbook page 270)
The forest produce which we use are- resins, gums, timber or wood, fruits, medicines, etc.
The persons living near a forest would use:
- wood to make paper
- tendu leaves for making bidis
- products of plantation of one species of plants
- resins and gums
The persons living in forest would use them for:
- fire-wood to be used as fuel
- collection of honey
- fodder for cattle
- making implements for agriculture and construction
- material for thatch roof of their huts
Activity 16.6 (Textbook page 271)
- Tendu leaves are used for making bidis
- Wood obtained from trees used in paper industry, furniture industry; wood from Salix species for making cricket bats etc.
No, these industries are not sustainable in the long run as they are being overexploited for human needs. So, we need to control our consumption of the products obtained from such trees.
Activity 16.7 (Textbook page 273)
(a) A lot of trees and vegetation is needed to be cut down for building rest houses for tourists in national parks. This is not good for the ecological balance of the area. Making such rest houses in National parks increases the levels of air pollution, noise pollution, etc. and the uncontrolled littering in such areas is a common sight these days which is very detrimental for the animals living in the area.
(b) Grazing animals in the national parks if carried out in an uncontrolled manner can lead to soil erosion as the grasses which bind the soil particles will not be there and so soil would be easily washed away during rains. The water holding capacity and ability to sustain the growth of larger trees will also be affected in absence of grass cover. Even the animals residing in the forest would be deprived of their food if large scale overgrazing is carried out.
(c) Tourists throwing plastic bottles/covers and other litter in national parks plays a havoc on the nature as these substances are non-biodegradable and they take several years to get completely degraded. The toxins which are released during their degradation further pollute the soil of the national parks. Plastics can choke the alimentary canals of the animals swallowing them and lead to their death. These substances also give an unpleasant look to the area due to their littering here and there.
Activity 16.8 (Textbook page 273)
The use of water resources merely for entertainment of few people when a large chunk of people from villages are suffering from chronic water shortage is very pathetic and shameful. Such a misuse of water should be stopped and the water should be diverted to the village for the use by the people during shortage of water. We need to manage our resources in a way that the distribution is equitable and useful to a large section of the society rather than catering to the needs of a few people. A big solution can be provided to the chronic water shortages in the village if rainwater is properly channelized, wastage of water is reduced, people are sensitised towards the need for conservation of water and the water resources should be managed in the most efficient way to fulfil the goals of sustainable development.
Activity 16.9 (Textbook page 273)
The maximum rainfall is received in the North east part of India and the western coastal regions of India. Mawsynram is the place where highest rainfall has been recorded till date. The area with least amount of rainfall are the Northwestern parts of India which include the states like Rajasthan, Haryana, parts of Gujarat and Punjab, so problems of water scarcity is more prevalent in these regions. The map showing the rainfall patterns in India is shown below:
Activity 16.10 (Textbook page 277)
The consumption of coal and petroleum can be reduced in the following ways:
- More use of public transport than personal vehicles.
- Conserving electricity by switching off fans and lights, when not in use.
- Use of solar cookers for cooking food in the areas which get good amount of sunlight.
- Use alternative sources of energy like the solar energy, wind energy etc.
- Use of biogas to generate electricity and to use as domestic fuel.
- The energy efficient devices like LED’s, higher Bureau of energy efficiency rating products etc.
- Save fuel by using bicycles or walking for covering short distances.
- An extra sweater can be worn in winters to save fuel/electricity used in a heating device.
- Less use of lavish lightning and decorations in weddings and public functions.
- Keeping the engines of vehicles well tuned and serviced to save fuel.
Activity 16.11 (Textbook page 278)
Euro norms refer to the permissible emission levels from both petrol and diesel vehicles, which have been implemented in Europe (EU-European Union). The Euro norms require manufacturers to reduce the existing polluting Emission Levels from the exhausts in a more efficient manner by making certain technical changes in the engines of the vehicles. The Euro-I norms was implemented from the year 1992-93. Euro-1 norms in India are known as India 2000 since it was implemented from 1/4/2000 in India. The changes required to be made by manufacturers for a euro I compliant car focussed primarily on: (a) catalyser capacity increase (b) tri-metal coating in the catalyser (c) exhaust gas recirculation (d) carburettor retuning (e) secondary air intake. The Euro-I and Euro-II norms are given in the table below: