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Bihar Board Class 11 English Grammar Combination of Sentences
(Conversion of Sentences)
एक Sentence (वाक्य) या Clause को तथा दूसरे sentence या clause को दूसरे वाक्य में बदलने की क्रिया को conversion of sentence कहते हैं।
Sentence और Clause में अन्तर
Sentence : A sentence is a group of words put together according to the rules of Grammar. A sentence has a subject and a finite verb.
शब्दों के किसी ऐसे समूह को वाक्य कहा जाता है जो अर्थ को पूर्ण रूप से स्पष्ट करता हो। वाक्य में एक कर्ता और एक क्रिया अवश्य रहती है।
जैसे – He went home yesterday.
Clause : A Clause is part of a sentence. एस शब्द समूह को clause (उपवाक्य __ या पद्) कहा जाता है जो किसी पूर्ण वाक्य का अंश हो तथा जिसका अपना अलग subject और predicate हो । जैसे – He is the man who is honest.
इसमें वाक्य (Sentence) में He is the man. एक clause हुआ और who is honest भी एक clause हुआ। दोनों clause मिलने पर एक वाक्य बना।
Kinds of Sentence –
Sentence के मुख्यतः चार भाग होते हैं –
(1) Simple Sentence
(2) Compound Sentence
(3) Complex Sentence
(4) Mixed Sentence
(1) Simple Sentence: जिस वाक्य का केवल एक ही Clause हो उसे Simple Sentence कहा जाता है, जैसे –
1. The boy broke his leg.
2. She washed her clothes.
(2) Compound Sentence: जिस वाक्य में दो या दो से अंधिक अनाश्रित उपवाक्य (Clauses) हों, उसे Compound Sentence कहा जाता है, उदाहरण के रूप में –
1. Sita saw Ram and she became happy.
2. You must work hard or you will fail.
3. Many were called, but few were chosen.
Compound Sentence के प्रत्येक Clause को Co-ordinate clause कहा जाता है।
(3) Complex Sentence (मिश्रित वाक्य): जिस वाक्य में एक मुख्य-वाक्य (Principal Clause) हो तथा एक या एक से अधिक आश्रित वाक्य (Subordinate Clauses) हों,
उसे Complex Sentence कहा जाता है। Principal Clause को Mair Clause भी कहा जाता है।
Sub-ordinate Clause को Dependent Clause भी कहा जाता है।
जैसे-The company that supplied goods has failed. यह complex sentence है ।
(4) Mixed Sentence: Mixed Sentence में कम-से-कम दो Principal Clause रहते हैं और कम-से-कम एक Subordinate Clause. इन नियमों का सदा ध्यान रखें –
- Simple Sentence – One Principal Clause.
- Compound Sentence – At least two Principal Clause.
- Complex Sentence – Principal Clause + Subordinate Clauses.
- Mixec Sentence – Compound + Subordinate Clause.
तो, इससे यह स्पष्ट है कि Simple Sentence को एक Mixed Sentence बनाने के लिए __ आपको उन्हीं नियमों की सहायता लेनी पड़ेगी जो Compound और Complex Sentence के सम्बन्धों में बताये गये हैं। आप Co-ordinating और Subordinating Conjunctions के द्वारा यह काम आसानी से कर सकते हैं, जिसकी चर्चा पहले ही हो गयी है।
Combine each set of Simple Sentence into a Compound Sentence :
- He is rich. He leads an unhappy life.
- The train is about to leave. We should get into the train.
- He works in a college. He manages his farm.
- My marriage will take place in April. If it does not, it will take place in October.
- You must help him in his studies. If you don’t, he will fail.
- Kapil Dev is a good bowler. Kapil Dev is a good batsman.
- I will not go to Srinagar. I will not go to Bangalore.
- The day dawned. The birds began to chirp.
- Keep quiet. I shall turn you out of the room.
- We do not borrow money. We do not lend money.
- He is rich but he leads an unhappy life.
- The train is about to leave, therefore, we should get into it.
- He both works in a college and manages his farm.
He not only works in a college but also manages his farm.
- My marriage will take place either in April or in October.
- You must help him in his studies, or otherwise) he will fail.
- Kapil Dev is both a good bowler and a good batsman.
Kapil Dev is not only a good bowler but also a good batsman.
- I will go neither too Srinagar nor to Bangalore.
- The day dawned and the birds began to chirp.
- Keep quiet, (or, otherwise) I shall turn you out of the room.
- We neither borrow nor lend money.
Simple Sentences into a Complex Senence
आप जानते हैं कि Complex Sentence में केवल एक ही Principal Clause होता है __ और उसमें कम-से-कम एक Subordinate Clause भी रहता है। इसलिए Simple Sentence को जोड़कर उन्हें एक Complex Sentence बनाते समय उसमें एक ही Principal Clause रखें और अन्य वाक्यों को Subordinate Clause का रूप दे दें।
Subordinate Clause तीन प्रकार के होते हैं –
- Noun Clause
- Adjective Clause
- Adverb Clause
ये तीनों प्रकार के Subordinate Clauses Relative Pronouns/Relative Adverbs/Subordinating Conjunctions से आरम्भ होते हैं जिनमें से मुख्य हैं –
that, who, which, what, because, since, so that, in order, that, as, as if, as soon as, though, before, after, if, when, where, till, until.
किस Subordinating Conjunction का प्रयोग कहाँ और कब होता है या (दूसरे शब्दों में) कब और कहाँ Noun Clause या Adjective Clause या AdverbClause का प्रयोग करके वाक्यों को Complex Sentence बनाया जाता है, यह वाक्यों के अर्थ पर ही निर्भर करता है। यह काम इन नियमों की सहायता से आसानी से कर ले सकते हैं –
How to Use Adverb Clause
Rule I. यदि वाक्यों से मालूम हो कि उनके बीच cause (कारण), condition (शर्त), – constrast (विरोध), compariso (तुलना), time (समय) या place (स्थान) का सम्बन्ध है, तो Adverb Clause के द्वारा वाक्यों को जोड़ना चाहिए इन्हें देखे –
1. He succeeded. He laboured hard.
Combined : He succeeded because he laboured hard.
2. He has been very unfortunate. He is always cheerful.
Combined : Though he has been very unfortunate, he is always cheerful.
3. He is a clever boy. No other boy in the class is more clever.
Combined : No other boy in the class is cleverer than he is.
4. You must sign your name. He will then agree to your terms.
Combined : He will agree to your terms, if you sign your name.
5. Men may sow much or little. They will reap accordingly.
Combined : Men will reap according as they sow much or little.
इन वाक्यों को Adverb Clauses के द्वारा जोड़कर Complex Sentence बनाये गये हैं। पहले दो वाक्यों में cause का सम्बन्ध है। इसलिए इन्हें because के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है। दूसरे दो वाक्यों के बीच contrast का सम्बन्ध है और तीसरे दो वाक्यों के बीच comparision का । अतः दूसरं दो वाक्यों को though के द्वारा और तीसरे दो वाक्यों को than के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है। चौथं दो वाक्यों से condition का बांध होता है। इसलिए इन्हें if के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है। . पाँचवें वाक्य सं manner बतलाया गया है। इसलिए इस according as के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है ।
Rule II. समय (time) का बोध करानेवाले वाक्यों को इनकी सहायता से जोड़ा जाता है-after, before, until.
इन वाक्यों को लें
1. He finished the work. Than he went out.
He went out after he had finished the work
2. I wrote a letter. Then I read the newspaper.
I read the newspaper after I had written a letter. Or, I had written a letter before I read the newspaper.
3. I finished the book. Then I went to bed.
I went to bed after I had finished the book. Or, I had finished the book before I went to bed.
4. The bus stopped. Then I got off.
I did not get off the bus until it stopped.
5. She finished the work. Then she went out.
She did not go out until she finished the work.
इन नियमों का ध्यान रखें –
- पहले समाप्त होनेवाले कार्य के साथ before का प्रयोग होता है, पर बाद में समाप्त होनेवाले कार्य के साथ after आता है।
- Until से आरम्भ होनेवाले clause में not नहीं आता, पर Principal Clause में not का प्रयोग होता है।
How to Use Adjective Clause
1. Adjective Clause के द्वारा भी Simple Sentences को जोड़कर एक Complex Sentence बना जाता है। यदि वाक्य में किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु की चर्चा हो जाए और अन्य वाक्यों में उसी के गुणों पर प्रकाश डाला जाय, तो Adjective Clause बनाने के लिए who, which, that, when या where का प्रयोग होता है; जैसे –
I suffered anxiety. The anxiety was extreme.
Combind : The anxiety that I suffered was extreme.
यहाँ पहले वाक्य में anxiety के विषय में बताया गया है और दूसरे में उसी पर और प्रकाश डाला गया है। इसलिए उन्हें Adjective Clause के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है। एक और उदाहरण लें –
A small house stood at the foot of the hill. We stayed there for the night.
Combined : We stayed for the night at a small house which stood at the foot of the hill.
यहाँ पहले वाक्य में house की चर्चा हुई है और दूसरे में उसी पर प्रकाश डाला गया है। (We stayed there for the night.)। इसलिए इन्हें भी Adjective Clause के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है।
इन वाक्यों को ध्यान से देखें –
1. He had received a good education. This raised him above many men.
Combined : The good education that he had received raised him above many men.
2. That is the house. He was born there.
Combined : That is the house where he was born.
3. This is the book. I wanted to buy it
This is the book that I wanted to buy.
4. Daniel came alive out of the den. In that den lion were kept.
Combined : Daniel came alive out of the den in which lions were kept.
Note : Who/Which/That के द्वारा जब Adjective Clause बनाया जाता है, तब इनका अर्थ हिन्दी में कोई भी ऐसे शब्द से होता है जो ‘ज’ से आरम्भ होता है; जैसे-‘जो’ ‘जिस’ आदि । विशेष जानकारी के लिए Analysis के अध्याय को देखें।
How to Use Noun Clause
Rule I. जब तक Simple Sentence के कथन (fact, opinion, belief, hope आदि) को दूसरे में स्वीकार (affirm) या अस्वीकार (deny) किया जाता है, तब ये that के द्वारा जोड़े जाते हैं। ऐसा that + clause होता है; Noun Clause और यह वाक्य हो जाता है Complex; जैसे –
(1) Better luck may be in store for us. We hope so.
Combined : We hope that better luck may be in store for us.
(2) He is honest. I know this.
Combined : I know that he is honest.
इन वाक्यों को ध्यान से देखें –
(1) He is honest. I do not doubt it.
Combined: I do not doubt that he is honest.
(2) He will come today. I am sure of it.
Combined: I am sure that he will come today.
(3) You have acted wrongly. I believe so.
Combined : I believe that you have acted wrongly.
(4) A lazy man injures no one but himself. This is not ture.
Combined : It is not true that a lazy man injures no one but himself.
(5) Someone has been making a great noise. I should like to know the person.
Combined : I should like to know who has been making a great noise.
Note :- ऐसे वाक्यों को जोड़ने पर it/this/that/so का लोप हो जाता है।
Rull II. Simple Sentence को इन शब्दों की सहायता से जोड़ा जाता है –
who, which, whom, whose, what, when, where, why, how, if, whether,
इन्हें जोड़ने पर who + clause/which +clause आदि Noun clasue होते हैं और पूरा वाक्य complex बन जाता है।
Assertive + Interrogative = Assertive + Assertive; जैसे –
1. I don’t know. Who is she? = I don’t know who she is.
2. I can’t say. Is he ill ? = I can’t say if/whether he is ill.
Imperative + Interrogative = Imperative + Assertive; जैसे –
1. Tell me, Where is he? = Tell me where he is.
2. Inform me. When will he come ? = Inform me when he will come.
Interorogative + Interrogative = Interrogative + Assertive;
1. Do you know? Why is she sad ?
= Do you know why she is sad ?
2. Can you tell me ? How have you come ?
= Can you tell me how you have come ?
Assertive + Exclamatory = Assertive + Assertive; जैसे –
1. How well he plays ! Nobody can believe.
= Nobody can believe how well he plays.
2. No one can imagine. What a great man he is!
= No one can imagine what a great man he is.
Assertive + Assertive = Assertive + Assertive; जैसे –
1. Somebody called me. I don’t know who.
= I don’t know who called me.
2. He will come. I can’t say when.
= I can’t say when he will come.
Rull III. जब एक Simple Sentence से प्रबल इच्छा का बोध होता है और दूसरे से इच्छापूर्ति का अभाव व्यक्त किया जाता है, तब इन्हें इस प्रकार जोड़ा जाता है –
Simple Sentence + [‘that’ understood] + Subject + Were + Other Words
Simple Sentence + [‘that’ understood) + Subject + Verb (Past Tense) + Other Words
1. I wish to be a king. I am not a king.
Combined: I wish I were a king.
2. I wish to know him. I don’t know him.
Combined: I wish I knew him.
3. I wished to know him. I didn’t know him.
Combined : I wished I had known him.
Simple Sentence into Mixed Sentence
Mixed sentence में कम से कम दो Principle clause एवं एक या एक से अधिक sub-ordinate clauses होता है । जैसे –
We heard the sad news. We immediately started for the afficted house. There we found the mourners.
Combined : We heard the sad news and we immediately started for the afflicted house, where we found the mourners.- Mixed sentence.
Miscellaneous Exercised Solved
Combine the following sentences into a complex or Mixed Sentence :
1. He behaved prudently under the circumstances. Few men would have acted so prudently.
Combined : Few persons would have acted so prudently as he did under the circumstances.
2. His difficulties become greater and greater. He shows more and more energy
Combined : The greater his difficulties, the more energy he shows.
3. I will visit your house in June next. You have frequently asked me to do so. I will not disappoint you any longer.
Combined : I will visit your house in June next, as you have frequently asked me to do; and I will not disappoint you any longer.
4. The supply of pasture often runs short. The nomads of Tartary then shift their abode. They search for new pasture elsewhere.
Combined : When the supply of pasture runs short, the nomads of Tartary shift their abode in search of new pasture elsewhere.
5. We heard the sad news. We immediately started for the afficted house. There we found the moumers.
Combined : On hearning the sad news, we immediately started for the afficted house, where we found the mourners.
6. They spoke in defence of their absent friend. They could not have spoken better.
Combined : They could not have spoken better than they did in defence of their absent friend.
7. Combine the following sentences :- (Model Paper 2009 (A)]
(a) I am going to Kolkata. I am going by the evening train. The train leaves at 7:30 P.M.
I am goin to Kolkata by the evening train leaving at 7:30 P.M.
8. Combine the following sentences : (Model Paper 2009 (A)]
(a) I went home. I talked to my parents.
(b) I missed the bus. I was late.
(c) You can take tea. You can take coffee.
(a) I went home and talked to my parents.
(b) I missed the bus as I was late.
(c) You can take either tea or coffee.
9. Combine the following sentences into one : (Board Exam. 2009 (Arts))
He finished his work. He went to catch the train. He had to go to Mumbai.
He finished his work and went to catch the train to go to Mumbai.
10. Identify the following sentences whether they are simple, compound or compler. [ Board Exam. 2009 ]
(a) You must work hard or you will fail.
(b) The company that supplied goods has failed.
(c) She washed her cloth.
(a) Compound sentence
(b) Complex sentence
(c) Simple sentence.
11. Combin the following simple sentences into one complex sentence each : [ Model Paper 2009 (A) ]
(a) Where is the museum ? Can you tell me ?
(b) Dhoni will play to his potential. I know this.
(c) How to deal with the situation ? Can you tell me ?
(a) Can you tell me where the museum is ?
(b) I know that Dhoni will play to his potential.
(c) Can you tell me how to deal with the situation ?
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